Representation and the construction of stereotypes typify the imperial cinema, underscoring its racial and gender bias. This was depicted in the films, Sanders of the River (1935) and Indochine (1992). …
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The film contained many symbolisms, which, according to Loomba are necessary in imagining nationhood and building nations (215). In the film, the British were depicted as the savior, keeping Africans from destruction and keeping the colonies from descending in chaos and savagery. The scenes of chaos, savagery and the wilderness of Africa, for instance, all supported the rationalization of Britain's imperialism. The narrative also sought to rewrite many African emblems and history in order to suit what Stam and Shohat called the colonialist norms. The rewriting of Bosambo from a tribal leader and good friend to a good servant in the film is a case in point. It reinforced the notion that blacks are incapable of self-determination. Gender bias was also present. The filmmaker insinuated that the deeply parochial Commissioner Sanders, who considered women as a distraction in his mission, was the ideal character to effectively lead the imperialist agenda in Africa. In Indochine, the imperialist tone is less pronounced. Its biases were more subtle, perhaps owing to the period it was made. Racist discourses are not overt or contained in the actual language: the roles and visual language insinuated them instead. For instance, while the protagonist – the Frenchwoman Eliane – was strong, independent and capable, such commendable gender treatment was not true in her Indochinese counterparts. It reinforced the suggestion of inferiority. This is also true n the contrast between the visual representation of the French and Indochinese societies as punctuated in sweeping cinematography wherein one basks in a scene of grandeur and the other in desolation. It showed the Eurocentrism, which imply that an being or becoming European is the only way to begin the onward march to reason or an elevation towards better values (Stam and Shohat, 15-16). 2. It is important to highlight first that the Third Cinema differentiates itself from the Hollywood (First Cinema) and the European films (Second Cinema). It focuses on a political position, particularly those about independence, decolonization and imperialism as opposed to cinema as a capitalist product or as an art (Alea, 112-113). The Battle of Algiers is an important example of this tradition. In the depiction of the Algerian struggle for independence from France, three important characteristics of Third Cinema were prominent. First there was the use of cinematic devices to present truth instead of fiction. For instance, there were no embellishments with regards to presenting the story. Although the film was sympathetic to the revolutionaries it also included the atrocities that they committed. There were also no heroes to romanticize. The film gave importance to the contribution of the ordinary people in the success of the revolution. In one scene, there were Arab women dressed in European clothes in a mission to plant bombs. Secondly, the filmmaker presented the film in such a way that created a social experience. As it depicted a social upheaval, the emphasis was given on the masses and their actions. For example, the actions of the main players in the film were often composed in populous places like the Casbah and Algiers. Then, instead of using popular actors, the filmmaker did not hire stars (with the exception of Jean Martin) or professional actors
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This specific aspect can be seen best through Ousmane Sembene’s films of “Xala I The Cure” and “Moolade.” Both of these films depict the ideals of Third Cinema and become a representation not only of film as an art and expression, but also as a way to enforce social change within the country.
At the time of its inception “Third Cinema” was used to voice the dissent of the protestors in the third world countries which were ruled by the colonial powers. Gradually, this genre of films has come to represent a number of social issues facing the developing economies.
According to the paper cinema since the time of its inception into the faculty of visual arts not only did influence the cultural paradigm of a nation, but also did influence the socio-cultural and socio-economic realm of a nation as an enterprise and the amount of resources engaged with it. Hollywood as a seat of film industry, and being the world’s largest one did influence the socio-cultural and socio-economic activity of America right from its classical period.
World Cinema like Hollywood cinema is gaining more recognition from the last two decades. University of Leeds (2005) defines world cinema as a terminology for English language films that is not from any English language countries, or simply "non-Hollywood" cinema. Along with its international recognition also comes the depth of the understanding of one country's status.
By applying this basic operation of identity formation to the cinematic apparatus, psychoanalytical approaches to cinema have provided insight into the emotional and psychological processes that motivate the spectator's investment in a narrative. Beginning with Jean-Pierre Oudart's article "La suture," (Oudart 1969, 35-47) the writers associated with Cahiers du Cinema first introduced suture into film theory.
As the relationships among film and the city carry on to expand as a focal point of critical inquisition, Cinema and the City stands as one of the further reachable and pioneering entry-points into the issues. This review is inter-disciplinary in its draw near, giving notice to the cinema-city association not only from the point of view of film studies but throughout art history, urban studies, geography, and critical hypothesis.
Especially, the Black Panthers and other extreme leftist groups greeted considered the film as a guide to urban revolution. It was banned in France for many years because of the vivid descriptions of riots, torture and terrorism, which showed its former rulers in a negative manner.
He regularly made use of nonprofessional actors and wrote the script in various African languages. As an intellectual interested in conveying his message to the socially disadvantaged masses, especially given the high rate of illiteracy in Senegal and the African continent, cinema was a great and effective choice.
"Third Cinema” is not an isolated movement. It should be considered as a part of the new Latin America cinema movements, which in turn was a part of the new cinema movements world over. It was a reaction against making films the objects of commerce than art. It was a reaction to big commercial internationalism influencing the national cinemas.
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