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First, before going into BBC’s relationship as a public broadcasting corporation with the commercial sectors, it is helpful to identify first what is meant by public service broadcasting. The Communications Act 2003 (CA 2003) sets a duty on the Office of Communications (Ofcom) to obtain accessibility of a broad range of both “television and radio services” all over the United Kingdom that is of high quality and considered to draw diverse “tastes and interests” (Communications Act 2003 s. 264); and to keep an adequate number of providers for various “television and radio services” (Ridgway 48). While the Communications Act has not defined what comprises “public service programming”, the Office of Communications (“Ofcom”) characterized this kind of programming by setting forth “its purposes and characteristics.” Ridgway in his article “All change for public service broadcasting in the UK?” enumerates the following purposes and characteristics of public service broadcasting: Purposes: • Informing our understanding of the world --to inform ourselves and others, and to increase our understanding of the world through news, information and analysis of current events and ideas.Stimulating knowledge and learning --to stimulate our interest in and knowledge of arts, science, history and other topics, through content that is accessible and can encourage informal learning. • Reflecting UK cultural identity --to reflect and strengthen our cultural identity through original programming in the United Kingdom, at both national and regional levels, on occasion bringing audiences together for shared experiences. • Representing diversity and alternative viewpoints --to make us aware of different cultures and alternative viewpoints through programmes that reflect the lives of other people and other communities, both within the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Characteristics: • High quality --well funded and well produced. • Original --new UK content rather than repeats or acquisitions. • Innovative --breaking new ideas or reinventing exciting approaches, rather than copying old ones. • Challenging --making viewers think. • Engaging --remaining accessible and attractive to viewers. • Widely available --if content is publicly funded, a large majority of citizens need the chance to watch it. (48) McGonagle on the other hand, defines public service broadcasting (PSB) as those broadcasted TV programs which are for the benefit of the public instead of solely for commercial ends (235). These programs consist of “local news coverage, arts programs, religious broadcasts, and augmented broadcasts featuring (for example) subtitling, visual signing and audio description” (McGonagle 235). It may also include “original drama, documentaries and children's programming” (Ridgway 49). A particular quota on “public service broadcasts” is also required in their “license to broadcast,” in accordance with Ofcom’s regulations (Ridgway 49). The objectives on the other hand for the so-called “plural public service broadcast provision” are the following: “Sources of high quality impartial news at local, regional as well as national level, including the nations as well as the United Kingdom as a whole;” high level “original British content”; a broad range of both “voices and talent from across the whole United Kingdom,” to guarantee “continuation and development of creative talent clusters in the regions and nations,” currently assured “through regional production quotas on some public service broadcasters”; “guaranteed levels of investment in independent production” in order to ensure the supply of “the best creative ideas and the healthy development of this
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Considering the media industry in the United Kingdom, it has been learnt that the industry has huge opportunities in the fields of computer graphics, computer games, creation of films, interactive media, radio and television. More and more skills are being recognized in these areas and multiple platforms are providing support for the television programs.
It seems that the rapid expansion of markets and competition leave no space for public services. However, the situation is not as simple as it seems. In the era of digital television, public service broadcasting remains a powerful source of freely accessible information for large audiences in Britain and the rest of the world.
Most people listen to BBC radio especially while on their way to work and at work. BBC is informative and fun to watch and listen to, its reception is good. BBC has employed very many people who come from different countries worldwide as it appreciates the diversity of culture.
Journalism is a career has evolved over the years to be currently a competitive career. The reason behind this is that journalism is closely connected to communication and its various forms. For journalism to be effective, it must fully utilize the available means of communication in order to ensure that the target audience gets the proper information in the right manner, and at the right time (Cobley, 2010:35).
The programming on PBS has traditionally been focused on children during the day and on well-educated viewers at night. Education naturally translates into higher earners so the brand at work here would appear to be one that is focused on television viewers who earn more and thus spend more than those who watch broadcast network shows.
We are ignorant because we are addicted to practicality (Tocqueville in Democracy in America), common sense and knowledge abjectivism (Sayer, 1992), and ignore the reality of scientific findings (Tocqueville in Democracy in
Commercial UK broadcasting however used to be regulated by several regulatory bodies. The considerations however of the arrival of digital television and the complications it would entail, impelled the Department of Trade and
n lives of people, especially in the countries of Western Europe and North America (Hallin and Mancini 2004); it keeps affecting worldviews, educates people on social and political matters and sometimes provides life models. Despite the fact that commercial broadcasting
ng profession in 1950s as a commercial illustrator in New York, Warhol became prominent globally for his work as a fine artist, a futuristic filmmaker, a painter, an author, a record producer, and a public figure. He is as well known for his presence in frantically various