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Advertising and Guerilla Advertising Effectiveness and Comparison - Literature review Example

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Advertising is the mode of persuasion, and its goal is to compel people to consume. Advertising’s arsenal is multi-faceted. It might be comprised entirely of semiotics, which means symbols and connotations for the symbols are the message…
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Advertising and Guerilla Advertising Effectiveness and Comparison
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Download file to see previous pages In the process, there are complicated underlying theoretical constructs which play a part in the persuasive process. The message is partially dependent upon graphic design, and psychoanalytic theory is also important. Psychoanalytic theory can help explain persuasion, because it explains how the human psyche decodes and deconstructs ads. Moreover, meaning is ascribed, according to the person’s experiences and identity. Critiques of commercial art verses fine art is also relevant in this analysis, because much of advertising can really be considered to be art. However, as this paper will argue, commercial art is more relevant to society than fine art, because commercial art is more easily interpreted and decoded by society at large.Further, John Hegarty’s ideas will be fleshed out, and applied to the concepts of guerrilla marketing. The basics of advertising persuasion Advertising persuasion happens in many different ways.The use of semiotics is one persuasive devise. Semiotics consists of two parts – one is the symbol, or the signifier; the other is the connotation for the sign. So, for the Nike “swoosh” symbol, the actual “swoosh” is the signifier. The connotation is the connection that one makes when seeing the symbol, that connotation being all that Nike represents to the individual person – athleticism, celebrity spokespeople, perhaps sweatshops. Semiotics is basically a "system of signs, and can be verbal, visual, or a combination of the two. The study of semiotics would indicate that the meaning of advertisements is not found within the ad, but its meaning depends on how it operates, how signs and its ideological effect are organized internally (within the text) and externally (in relation to its production, circulation and consumption and in relation to technological, economic, legal and social relations)." (Dyer, 1982, p. 115). The audience are active participants in the decoding of the signs, bring experience and social background to the act of semiotic decoding. Returning to the Nike “swoosh,” how an individual interprets the sign might depend upon the background of the individual. One individual, who has Nike shoes, and love them, will decode the sign differently from somebody who has Nike shoes, and hates them. Another individual, who remembers the sweatshop scandal from years ago, might see the swoosh as a symbol of oppression. Etc. Semiotics are crucial to advertising, because this is the way that one company may differentiate itself from another company. Semiotics has not always been the vehicle for persuasion, however, as, during the 19th Century, advertising relied more upon words than semiotics. Earnest Elmos Calkins, founder of Calkins & Holden advertising agency, in New York City, changed the emphasis from words to semiotics. Calkins used modern art techniques in advertising, such as cubism and futurism, while using graphics designers and magazine illustrators to design his ads. He was the first to understand that advertisements demand dynamic new designs, and was the first to let the designs themselves do the persuading, without the use of copy (Heller, 2001). Thus, graphic designers produce the semiotics which are used persuasively in advertising. These semiotics allow the advertisement to communicate to the audience, without using a single word. Advertising is very important to society, because of its persuasiveness, which helps goods be distributed smoothly. It is also important because it can convey messages about social issues, while persuading society about the importance of these issues (Heller, 2001). The symbol itself is just one aspect of semiotics, as ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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