Chapter 1: Introduction Background of the Study Various researches have already pointed out the importance of leadership. Leadership has been considered important in view of its influence on the success or failure of organisations. This is generally attributed to the fact that the effective leader aids the organisations and its members to fully realize their goals, thereby leading them to the attainment of the latter…
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The latter, in turn, also helps the organisation in attaining the desired level of success. Most of the studies conducted in relation to leadership and its effects on the success of the organisation have been conducted in the context of private organisations (Palestini 2009; Gardner, Avolio and Walumbwa 2005). Nevertheless, the importance of leadership is also evident as regards the members of the public sector. The importance of the concept of leadership in the public sector, however, has long been recognized. It has become one of the most important issues that must be addressed as various states have discovered a gap in relation to the manner by which their public sectors function vis-a-vis the needs of their constituents (Morse and Buss 2008; Christensen 2007) . Undoubtedly, different nations all over the world have discovered that there is something missing with the culture by which public sector is based upon and the fulfillment of public interest (Raffel, Leisink and Middlebrooks 2009; Van Wart 2003). Usually, complaints as regards the lack of dedication to the values of the public service and the manner by which the interests of the people are taken into consideration are the most evident. In this sense, the common recommendation is to turn to a certain kind of leadership to cater to the said gaps as regards public service and the promotion of the citizens’ interest (Bass 2008; Koch and Dixon 2007). Leadership in the public sector is also affected by a number of factors that are not present in the experiences of private organisations (Koch and Dixon 2007; Gill 2006; Morse and Buss 2008). According to researches conducted in relation to the topic at hand, the following are the most common factors and issues that affect leadership in the public sector: (1) increased demands for the provision of solutions in relation to problems commonly experienced in the public sector; (2) the need for personalized services in a sense that it must cater to the needs of the citizens; (3) the importance of balancing the needs of the public, private and voluntary sectors; (4) the need to respond to pressures as regards continuous improvement, innovation and learning; and lastly, (5) coping with institutional architectures that are complicated (Christensen 2007; Koch and Dixon 2007). The concept of leadership is an essential part of the concept of good public governance. To understand the former, governance pertains to the manner by which the agency of the state (the government) institutionalizes the values of their nation as stipulated in the highest law of the land (in most cases, the Constitution) (Bason 2011; Wallis, Dollery and McLoughlin 2007). In view of this, governance then entails the adherence to the following principles: the separation of powers, system of checks and balances, the development of ways by which power is transferred, accountability and transparency. However, to ensure its proper incorporation, it is of paramount importance that these values must be embedded into the system and work of each and every public official. Succinctly, leadership is indeed at the core of the concept of good governance (Berman, Bowman and West 2009). The importance of leadership in the public sector has also been underscored in a sense that the leaders are important as the people look up to them for the solution of
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