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"Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope" paper presents an introduction to electron – matter interaction for a better understanding of electron microscopy and SEM. It was suggested that the price discovery can be either through negotiations prior to or post invitation of open tender…
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While resolution in case of an optical microscope is limited to about 100 mm (a typical best possible value); electron microscopy stretched it down to sub-micrometers (most common SEM resolution) to even sub-nanometer level (a typical Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) resolution). Not just that, electron microscopy was further augmented with suitable detectors to even extract quantitative micro-chemistry and micro-crystallographic information not only from the surfaces (in case of SEM) but also from within the bulk of the material in case of TEM. Enhancement in resolution could be possible because of a much smaller value of the wavelength of the accelerated electrons (which are the probe in electron microscopy) as compared to that of the visible light (which is the probe in case of optical microscopy). Why electron microscopy could be expanded to provide much more information is because the interaction of electrons with matter leads to the generation of a variety of signals like different kinds of electrons and X-rays and these signals contain valuable information about not only the topography of the surface but also about the chemistry of the material and orientation of the grains. Therefore, it becomes relevant to present a brief introduction to electron – matter interaction for a better understanding of electron microscopy in general and SEM in particular.
When an electron beam strikes with matters it interacts with the electrons – outer shell as well as core electrons and nucleus of the matter. Depending on the energy and intensity of the incident electron beam and thickness of the material being exposed to the electron beam different kinds of signals are generated. A schematic diagram showing a typical electron – matter interaction is presented in Figure 1.
The electron beam can penetrate through the specimen only if its thickness is less than 100 nm and only then the transmitted signals are produced. Transmitted signals are used in Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and related analytical equipment like STEM (Scanning TEM), ATEM (Analytical TEM), HRTEM (High-Resolution TEM), etc with attachments like EELS, HAADF, etc.
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...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... | Type here Select and compare a SE and BSE image taken from the same region of a sample. 1a. Highlight differences between the two images, referring to specific features in the images. The above micrographs represent a Secondary electron image (SE) and a Backscatter electron image (BSE) of the same region of an asbestos sample. The SE image appears more three dimensional than the BSE image. The cluster of fibers at the center in the SE image appears more rounded, while the one in the BSE appears flat. The contours and topography of the SE image are clearly visible, while the BSE image looks flatter and plane. There is a greater...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Characterization by SEM, SEM-EDAX and TEM Determination of important characteristics like particle shape, size, size distribution chemistry etc. of different oxide powder samples was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), SEM with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). SEM images were used to carry out size distribution analysis of the powder particles using a software package CARNOY. BSE image of the powder particles was taken and EDS was performed to get chemical information about bright particles in the powder sample. Analysis shows that even though the particle size...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Characterization by Advanced Electron Microscopy Characterization of particle has been performed using advanced electron microscopy and microanalytical instruments like Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (SEM-EDAX) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Different attributes of particles like particle shape, size and size distribution and chemical composition of different particles were determined. SEM analysis shows that there is multimodal distribution of particle size with modes at 25 ?m, 60 ?m and 115 ?m. SEM-EDAX analysis shows that the powder particles ...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Microscopy
la. Briefly describe how the main lens aberrations arise in electron microscopy.
Electron microscopy is a technique in microscopy that offers higher magni-fication, higher resolution and greater depth of field in viewing objects. When the main lens aberrations arise in electron microscopy1 the high quality of resolution, light focusing to the point of object and depth of field is not achieved. Lens aberrations can exist in a form of chromatic aberrations. This exist when a range of wavelengths is instantly present in the light (for example in 'white' light) and occur because a single lens will enable light to be ...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Scanning Electron Microscope Scanning Electron Microscope The scanning electron microscope utilizes abeam of focused high-energy electrons for the generation of various signals on the surface of specimens (Reimer, 2008 p97). The signals derived from the interaction between the sample and the electron reveals information regarding the sample inclusive of texture, material orientation in the sample, crystalline structure, and chemical composition. During most of its applications, data collected over the selected sample surface area is generated as a 2-D image which displays the spatial variations of the properties being investigated....
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Voltage Scanning Electron Microscopy
Low voltage scanning electron microscopy denotes the use of scanning electron microscopy, which uses few kilo electron-volts (...Working Principles of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are microscopes, which produce sample images by scanning the samples using a beam of focused electrons. The focused beam of electrons interacts with electrons within the sample to produce differing signal strengths that can be detected by a secondary electron detector. The focused electrons hit the sample surface, where they either get reflected as back-sc...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Use of the scanning electron microscopy in the food industry Use of the scanning electron microscopy in the food industry Introduction Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as other techniques such as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is an effective tool used for the identification and characterization of particulate contamination and foreign body contamination of food. Whether foreign body contamination occurs during processing or packaging, identification of these foreign bodies needs to be rapid and efficient in order to trace the source of contamination. The capabilities of SEM in foreign body identification make the ...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... 285982 A BIOMEDICAL LABORATORY INSTRUMENT An Essay Presented to The Faculty of . . . In Partial Fulfillment Of the requirements for
. . .
A BIOMEDICAL LABORATORY INSTRUMENT
One of the greatest gifts that men of the 21st century have to be grateful is the discovery and fabrication of electron microscopes. Most lay-people however does not have any idea of what an electron microscope is, what are the kinds of electron microscopes, how electron microscopes functions with its corresponding parts, the benefits that electron microscope can offer to laboratory studies, and the maintenance of elect...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... of electron microscope
Electron microscope is a type of microscope which uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the specimen. It is an essential component for scientific analysis of a variety of materials.
Figure- 1: Electron Microscope (RSIC, 2008)
Uses of electron microscope
Examination under electron microscope yields following information of the specimen studied (CMRA, 2008)
1. Topography- The microscope enables observation of surface features of the specimen. The appearance, texture, hardness, reflectivity and many other aspects can be studied.
2. Morphology- The shape and...
...Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Procurement of a Suitable Scanning Electron Microscope... Electron Corporation In the circumstances of this case, the best solution would have been to cancel the contract and start a new bidding process. This would have been due to the fact that Electron Corporation knew of the capability of the better component but still decided to install the untested ones. The contractor does not want to redesign the circuitry to match that used by Neutron Company despite the fact that the use of their recommended components will raise the price of the contract. Since the contract was awarded because of their significantly low bid, the contractor has broken the government’s trust and, consequently, the...
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