I’d list 6 main groups of elements, that are specific to Judaism.
Signs and symbols
Most known are the Star of David, Candles (Menorahs), Torah, etc.
Judaism is famous with numerous prayers followers have to offer daily, weekly and monthly. There are prayers upon wakening, travelers prayer, grace after meals, weekday Amidah, prayers for healing and many more. There are studies on this issue, so if you are interested, you can search for those.
There are several central holy texts in tradition. The first and primary is the Torah. Next go Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrash. They are considered to cover all the essential questions of human life and how it should be lead.
Judaism is a monotheistic religion, which means it has only one Superior God, who is considered to be all-powerful. God in Judaism has own Hebrew name, which, if written, cannot be erased, removed or destroyed.
Ceremonies and rituals
As well as numerous prayers, Judaism holds loads of specific rituals and ceremonies. F.e. Kiddushin is a name of the marriage ceremony, Bar Mitzvah is a ceremony performed for boys aged 13, and Bat Mitzvah, same for girls, but from the age of 12.
A synagogue is a place, where followers gather to offer prayers and worship their God. Also, there are two holy places, namely Jerusalem and Israel. Those are considered to be places of origin for jews. Therefore they try to visit them at least once in life. The famous Wailing Wall is also a sacred place for jews.