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History of the Jews: The Medieval and Early Modern Periods Mid-term - Essay Example

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Professor Date Key Words: Hallakha, Muslims, Jews, Christianity, Golden Age, Roman Empire, Liturgy, Christianity, Jewish, History of Jews 1. Halakhah Halakhah has been in existence through numerous Jewish generations since 500 BC. Ideally, Hallakha originates from three diverse sources, which are the Torah, laws instituted by rabbis and from long-standing customs in Judaism (Jobani)…
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History of the Jews: The Medieval and Early Modern Periods Mid-term
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Download file to see previous pages The term Halakhah appears in “Jewish law” although in a more literal manner whereby the translation of the term is “the path that one walks (Jobani).” Primarily, Hallakha forms a body of obscure judicial opinions, legislation, and customs many of them passed down over many centuries. Halkhah generally constitutes the complete body and practices that bind Jews including Biblical commandments, those of the rabbis as well as customs, which they ought to follow. Halakha does not only refer to religious practices and beliefs of Jews but also their way of life. It covers what Jews claim is the best way for a Jew to live according to what scriptures from the Holy bible dictates (Jobani). However, development and application of laws is by varied authorities instead of one supreme authority, hence prompting different communities applying them differently compared to others. 2. 70 CE It is a vital era in the Jewish community that saw the peak of the great revolt of 66 to 70 CE and commencement of the three major rebellions conducted by Jews against Romans. This was due to Roman subduing Israeli in 63 B.C.E, Which made life extremely difficult for Jews. The latter was due to three major reasons including taxes, Roman intolerable control over the high priest position and general treatment of Jews by Romans. In addition, differences between Jewish believe in one supreme God and pagan Greco-Roman world was at the heart of all disagreements because it aroused tension between the two groups. Under Roman, rule taxation became a troubling issue to the Jews. Roman governors who had the responsibility for collecting tax revenues in Israel in most cases hike taxes paid by every individual pocketing the surplus money. Besides, governors did all this in the knowledge of Roman law, which allowed the vice, hence Jews had no one to complain to in such occasions. In addition, under Roman rule they decided who held the post of High priest even though; traditionally Jews appointed the candidate. Consequently, Romans only appointed people who appeared not in good terms with Jews in order to frustrate the Jews. The menace happened even when the Roman Emperor knew how important the high priest was to Jews because he represented them during holy days. The Roman Emperor Caligula took over authority in the year 39 C.E where he cited he was almost to a god. Additionally, he ordered soldiers to erect statues of his image in every place of worship within his jurisdiction including the Temple. Since idolatry was against Jewish beliefs who the latter in turn refuted to place the statue of a pagan god in the Temple. In response Caligula threatened to destroy the Temple altogether, but before the Emperor could execute his threat, members of the Praetorian Guard ended up terminating him. The Great Revolt commenced in year 66 whereby Jews subdued Romans who during then had their main settling area in Jerusalem. The Siege of Jerusalem during 70 AD was the greatest event of the entire First Jewish-Roman combat whereby Roman army managed to subdue their enemies besides taking advantage of their area. 3. The “Golden age” of Jews in Spain According to scholars’ studies, there is no precise evidence of the length of this “Golden Age of Jews in Spain” period. Some say it either occurred in711-718 after the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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