Initially, that was Greek term ‘Politika,' which had a meaning ‘the affairs of cities.' Nowadays it has several definitions. The most popular of them are:
Politics - is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. This is a very broad definition, which, by necessity, can be applied to different situations and needs.
If considering this term more narrowly, we will get the definition that refers to the achieving and exercising positions of governance. So the politics appear to be an organized control over a human community, particularly a state.
Also, politics can be a study or a practice of power and sources distribution within the given community (which usually is a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship or interrelationships between communities.
Politics has developed a variety of methods, including promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws, and exercising force, including warfare against adversaries.
Politics is realized on a broad range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments, companies, and institutions up to sovereign states, and to the international level.
It is very often said that politics is only about power. A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within society. The history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius.
If you need more detailed research on politic’s historical background, you need to go through some researches on the topic. I would recommend you to start from
Those two papers have to introduce you to the topic and present the general idea of it.
In case you would need more information, you would need to go through major works on politics and its history.