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Criteria for Causality - Essay Example

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When an action directly leads to certain consequences, it can be held as the cause of those consequences. But correlation is a sort of sequential proximity of an action and an…
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Criteria for Causality
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Download file to see previous pages The media often concludes a causal relationship among correlated observances when causality was not even considered by the study itself. Without clear reasons to accept causality, we should only accept correlation.”
A spurious relationship is a mathematical tool which is used to establish that whether two events in correlation have some sort of causal connection or not. Spuriousness is a property of highly misleading correlations that may appear to be causation. Hence, when a correlation has no spurious relationship, it is a highly possible causation. Hence, nonspuriousness becomes an essential criterion in examining the correlated events and establishing causality. (Pearl, 2000; Verma and Pearl, 1990)
Timing of different events is important since time sequencing of actions and events can determine causation. By measuring time, we can determine when an action took place and when another action or event occurred in correlation or consequence to it. Hence, time order is also an important tool to inspect causality. Johnson and Bhattacharya (2009, p. 505) point out that in business and economics, “observations are collected in a time sequence with the intention of using regression techniques to predict future trend. In many other experiments, trials are conducted successively in time.” And in any event, a plot of the residuals versus time order can detect a contravention of the postulation of independence among related actions and/or events. Hence, time order emerges as a criterion of causality.
In the above statement, the event of active or passive smoking precedes the event of respiratory illness due to nicotine. The event of respiratory illness due to nicotine does not take place without active or passive smoking. Respiratory illness due to nicotine (even of negligible magnitude) takes place whenever active or passive smoking takes place.
Causes are time and again differentiated into two major categories: (1) Necessary and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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