StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Epidemiology: read article and find criteria for causality - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
In the study, we consider the strength of association between the cause and effect. Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley explain that beating…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.6% of users find it useful
Epidemiology: read article and find criteria for causality
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Epidemiology: read article and find criteria for causality"

Epidemiology Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley describe physical punishment as a stress-inducing action that increases the risk of future health complications. In the study, we consider the strength of association between the cause and effect. Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley explain that beating and insults were highly correlated. This is because among the participants who reported frequent beatings 97% of them reported to have experienced monthly insults (Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley 4). The researchers’ clarify that frequent beating and insults increase the relative risks for cancer, asthma and cardiac disease. The relative risk presented in the study was 1.7 for cancer disease, 1.3 for cardiac disease and 1.6 for asthma. The relative risks present a weak to moderate strength in causality association. According to Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley a parenting style that utilises physical punishment induces stress on the children. The researchers explain that induced stress increases the risk for somatic diseases.
The study illustrates consistency with previous researches that indicate that child abuse and early life stressors affect an adult’s somatic health. Hyland, Alkhalaf and Whalley state that previous researches explain that chronic minor stresses induce pathogenic effects. Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley focus their study on stress inducing parenting style, which involves beating and abusing of children. They try to link the long-term adverse health effects experience in adulthood to the childhood experience (Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley 6).
The study conclusively indicates that the cause and effect in the study exhibits temporality. Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley explain that physically punishing children serves as a signal of threat that creates stress. Stress induction in childhood is partly responsible for the physical diseases experienced in adulthood. According to other related studies, it is evident that factors such as child abuse, socioeconomic status, household dysfunction, which induce stress increases occurrence of adult somatic diseases. On the other hand, research shows that childhood stress is responsible for epigenetic and various changes that predispose one to disease through a raised non-specific inflammatory profile (Hyland, Alkhalaf and Whalley 6).
The study indicates the existence of a biological gradient in the subject matter under consideration. Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley suggest that a beating frequency of only once per six months increases the risk of cancer, asthma and cardiac disease. The study did support the idea that an infrequent beating did have a pathogenic effect. Data from studies show in some cases frequent beatings resulted to death and disability. There are cases where adults under study experienced greater distortions when reflecting on the events from childhood (Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley 6).
In the study Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley provide experimental evidence. The group they sampled provides indirect evidence that adults who experienced frequent beating during childhood were more likely to have cancer, asthma or cardiac disease. The control group consisted of healthy adults. The sample group under observation were required to recall the frequency with which they faced physical punishment. The scientist determined that in every disease group under study there was a curvilinear relationship with the recalled beatings or insult. There was reduction of the risk ratios at the very highest frequencies of recorded punishment (Hyland, Alkhalaf, and Whalley 7).
The weakness noticeable in the study is the coherence of the facts presented. Hyland, Alkhalaf and Whalley state that early life stresses present long-term effects for later somatic health. Their argument is that childhood punishment in the form of beatings and insult induces stress. However, there is the argument from other studies that early life stresses can result from other factors such as poor foetal nutrition, family dysfunction, and low social economical status. Hyland , Alkhalaf and Whalley in their study depend on their patients to recall their childhood experience therefore the data acquired is likely to be inaccurate this may affect the specificity of the casual relationship being determined (Hyland, Alkhalaf and Whalley 7).
Work Cited
Hyland, Michael E., Alkhalaf, Ahmed M., and Whalley, Ben. “Beating and Insulting
Children as a Risk for Adult Cancer, Cardiac Disease and Asthma.” Journal of Behavioural Medicine DOI 10.1007/s10865-012-9457-6 (2012): 1-9. Print Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Epidemiology: read article and find criteria for causality Essay”, n.d.)
Epidemiology: read article and find criteria for causality Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1617203-epidemiology-read-article-and-find-criteria-for-causality
(Epidemiology: Read Article and Find Criteria for Causality Essay)
Epidemiology: Read Article and Find Criteria for Causality Essay. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1617203-epidemiology-read-article-and-find-criteria-for-causality.
“Epidemiology: Read Article and Find Criteria for Causality Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1617203-epidemiology-read-article-and-find-criteria-for-causality.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Epidemiology: read article and find criteria for causality

Article - Newsworthy Criteria

...?Definition of Newsworthy Newsworthy information can be defined as those which are currently happening, significance of the population involved in the news, proximity of occurrence, involvement of prominent personalities, and those which have an inherent human interest. The above factors help to determine whether a story is newsworthy for publish either in a paper or a magazine (What Makes a Story Newsworthy? n.d). Article analysis The article, published online at pressofAtlanticCity.com on the 3rd of May, reports the $ 1 billion acquisition of the AirTran airways by Southwest Airlines. The news was published on the day after the purchase was finalized. Hence the customers have been provided with the latest update about the merger... . In...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

EPIDEMIOLOGY

...the entire study is homogenous. iii) One journal article reports that the Q-test for heterogeneity yields p=0.2. What is this test and how do you interpret this value? [2 marks] There is no heterogeneity. This is because heterogeneity occurs when p-value < 0.05 (< 0.10), hence we can allow null hypothesis. For heterogeneity, the statement is vice versa. Fig 3: Funnel plot for colon cancer iv) What is publication bias and how would you check for it? By looking at the above funnel plot, could you please comment if there is any publication bias present or not? [2 marks] This is the tendency of reporting study’s findings towards a preferred direction. In ascertaining publication bias, I will check the...
3 Pages(750 words)Assignment

Read an article

...    Read an Article According to Murray Rothbard, Anarchy, and Utopia by Robert Nozick, is presumed to be an unseen work modification of a Lockean contractarian effort to give explanation for the State, or in any case, a nominal state restricted to the duties of protection. Starting with an open-market revolutionary form of nature, Nozick depicts the State as rising, by an unseen work course that does not abuse anyone’s rights as a leading protecting organization, to an ultraminimal state, and as a minimal state. Rothbard looks at and critiques a number of Nozick’s phases and conception. Rothbard presumes that these critiques will be adequate in countering Nozick’s effort to rationalize the state...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Read an article

...Socialism: A Property or Knowledge Problem There are different schools of thought that have their own philosophies about socialism. One school of thought in particular has had many compliments and criticism. This is as with any school of thought that another may find different from their own. In this case, there is the thought from one school that socialism can only be possible through the presence of private property and other factors of production. This is the Mises theory on socialism, which advocates for the presence of these factors to allow for economic calculation to take place. However, a contradiction in this theory came in the form of Hayek, who believes that it is not a problem of lack of private property,...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Economic read an article

... Task: The Failures of Social Contracts Social contract refers to conditions and agreements that form the basis of governments’ existence and stipulates the order of administration. The observance of the full interest of the people or subjects that have the power and control over every undertaking of the government forms the foundation social contracts. The power that governments have emanates from the people as granted by social contracts. As Rousseau states, any sovereign authority, most of which emanate from social contracts, must operate within the precincts of the law (59). Anything that does not conform to the law, set by the social contract, renders the legitimacy null and negligible. In as much as many governments... Task: The...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Epidemiology

.... Epidemiologists involve themselves in study design, data collection, statistical analysis of the data collected, and interpretation of the results, as well as the distribution of the results. This dissemination can be done in systematic reviews, which are occasional, and peer reviewed articles. It helps to inform institutions on policy decisions and medicine that is evidence based via the identification of disease risk factors and preventive medicine targets. This paper aims to take two case studies and address how epidemiology was concerned with efforts to describe, explain, predict, and control the examples. Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis and has been known for more than a few thousand years...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Research Methods for Business Students

..., and where the correlation magnitude is great. Strengths. It is an experiment of memory and facilitates recognition. This study addresses causality due to its controls on the extraneous variable. Weaknesses. In some cases it is always hard to manipulate some certain variables. The results obtained in this study cannot be generalized. For the case of laboratory experiment, it is difficult to control the lab settings. A case study A case study involves intensive analyzing of an individual unit and emphasizes on developmental factors. Case studies are common in social sciences and life sciences. It can be explanatory or descriptive (Creswell, 2003). An explanatory case study explores causation in finding...
20 Pages(5000 words)Research Paper

Criteria for Causality

...Criteria for Causality I.D. Number: Term and Year Criteria for Causality Explanation of the Three Specific Criteria of Causality Correlation Correlation can explain two or more proximal events or facts but it is different than exact causality. When an action directly leads to certain consequences, it can be held as the cause of those consequences. But correlation is a sort of sequential proximity of an action and an event affected by it. Hence, correlation alone is not causality, but can be considered as a determining factor. (Verma and Pearl, 1990) According to Statistical Assessment Service (2012)...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Read an article

...Sur Due According to the article on past and future of construction equipment does the past affect what will bedone in the future and if so how? There has been a radical change in the construction industry as the industry has moved from using steam powered machines to the hydraulic operated and electronically controlled equipment. However it is important to note that it is what was tested and failed or succeeded in the past that has contributed to this much advancement in the construction industry. Basing your argument on the construction article how has the contractual arrangements and provisions contributed to construction? Does it help the contractor or the employer? There are contracts that...
1 Pages(250 words)Article

Epidemiology (article analyses)

...of the study were to estimate the impact of these risk factors among HIV-infected population as compared to the general population and to determine the relative risk death among successfully treated HIV-infected patients without such risk factors (Obe et al, 2011). The sampling frame was based on all Danish HIV-infected patients who started HAART in the period 1 January 1998–1 July 2009 while the comparison cohort consisted of individuals matched on date of birth and gender. Only patients who had been on HAART for a period of one year were included in the study. A major finding of the study was that probability of survival from age 25 to age 65 was substantially lower in HIV patients confidence interval compared to the...
2 Pages(500 words)Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Epidemiology: read article and find criteria for causality for FREE!

Contact Us