Sociology and criminology - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Critical criminology vs mainstream criminology Critical criminology is used to cover a whole range of criminological perspectives and theories that tend to challenge the underlying assumptions on which the conventional or mainstream criminology is based. Critical criminology offers alternative ways of understanding the control of crime…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.9% of users find it useful
Sociology and criminology
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Sociology and criminology"

Critical criminology vs mainstream criminology Critical criminology is used to cover a whole range of criminological perspectives and theories that tend to challenge the underlying assumptions on which the conventional or mainstream criminology is based. Critical criminology offers alternative ways of understanding the control of crime. Critical criminologists sometimes refer to the mainstream criminology as the administrative, correctional, establishment, positivistic, or managerial criminology. The focus of the mainstream criminology is considered to be excessively narrow and focused at street crime, individual offenders, as well as social engineering on state’s behalf. The claims of scientific objectivity based on the mainstream criminology are rejected in the perspectives of critical criminology. The critical criminological perspectives also refuse to accept that the scientific method has any privileged status. Although critical criminologists sometimes use quantitative analysis to apply an empirical approach, yet critical criminology, for the most part, adopts an approach that is qualitative and interpretive to the social reality’s understanding in the crime’s realm. Most prestigious journals do not accept critical scholarship and a fundamental reason behind this is the criticism it offers for the mainstream theories and thoughts (Schwartz et al., 2000). Nevertheless, there are other issues involved as well; there exists a prejudice against the works that are not obsessively methodological, highly empirical, and are grounded in a rigid theoretical framework. Labeling theory Deviance is not an act’s quality that has been committed by an individual. Instead, it is a result of application of sanctions and rules by others on an offender. Deviant behavior is what people recognize as deviant and the deviant is that who gets successfully labeled for exhibiting the deviant behavior. Labeling approach is amongst the most effective approaches that can be developed in the cases of deviance. Primary deviance occurs because of numerous reasons and its effect on self is marginal. Secondary deviance happens in result of the reaction of the society to the primary deviance. It changes the self-concept from normal to becoming deviant. A new identity is taken by the individual so that he/she becomes a shoplifter in his/her own mind. Sometimes, judges criminalize an action by ruling in a certain manner that creates a precedent for rulings in the future. Decriminalization is in contrast to criminalization and is that in which an illegal act is transformed into a legal act. Classical vs neoclassical theory of crime According to the classical theory of crime, every individual has his/her own free will, so anybody can be a criminal depending upon what choices he/she makes on his own. Classical theory emphasizes on the availability of choice to everybody. For example, a man that has deliberately robbed a bank should be punished because he chose to rob when he could have avoided it. On the other hand, the neoclassical theory suggests that although every individual has a free will, the tendency of an individual to use the free will is determined by numerous factors that may include but are not limited to social disorganization and mental illness. I think that the neoclassical theory of crime is more rational as compared to the classical theory of crime because it takes into account the role played by nurturing as well as different circumstances of each individual on his/her free will whereas the classical theory tends to act oblivious of the influence of these factors on the individual’s tendency to commit crime. The neoclassical theory of crime tends to improve the stance of the law enforcing bodies toward the perpetrators that may influence the severity of punishment or level of guilt. It emphasizes upon the need to treat different perpetrators differently because of the differences of evidence that exist among them. For example, children cannot be expected to behave as responsibly as the adults. Crime is caused as a consequence of various conditions that tend to influence the perpetrator and convince him/her to commit it. Relation between demographics and crime Demographics have an important relation with crime. Demographic factors that depict an individual’s tendency to exhibit crime include but are not limited to rate of fertility, fraction of children that have been raised by single parents, and the fraction of children born from the teenage pregnancy. These demographic factors depict the property crime as well as violent crime. Fertility rate is directly proportional to crime. The more children in a family, the greater their tendency to commit crime gets as parents’ attention is divided among all children. Single parents’ children are susceptible to committing crime because they are not adequately supervised. Children born to teenager mothers have a high tendency to commit crime because they have been stigmatized and might have faced oppression in the society. Works Cited: Schwartz, M. “Critical Criminology and the Mainstream: Issues in Publishing Critical Scholarship.” The Critical Criminologist. 10.2. (2000). Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Sociology and criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1”, n.d.)
Sociology and criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1. Retrieved from
(Sociology and Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words - 1)
Sociology and Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words - 1.
“Sociology and Criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words - 1”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Sociology and criminology


...?CRIMINOLOGY Module Module ID: Introduction: The present paper aims to explore the male rape crime committed on a French-Swiss youth of 15 years during his tour to the state-country of Dubai at the hands of three native rapists in July last year (Walt, 2007). The main reason behind selecting the male rape in an ethnically prejudiced country is not only to unveil the motivation behind committing such a heinous crime in a land that claims to be the haven for the European tourists, but also to reveal the violation of human rights aptly exercised in the purported modern states of the world. The Asian and African states blame the USA, Australia and Europe for creating a single mother society by allowing unchecked and...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper


...?Word count 1304 Order # 537938 d 21st May Criminology Part Essay on ’Marginalization and criminalization in the opinion of critical criminologists” The marginalization and criminalization are inter related as the former may result in the latter in some cases. The marginalization means the social process of making some specific group of people marginal from participating in any social activity or organization etc. According to critical criminologists, marginalization implies about the process of getting discriminated on some ground compared to other sections of the society. The critical criminologists believe that the marginalization and criminalization are highly integrated with each other. This may affect the mental state... Publication,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Core stability and low back pain

12 Pages(3000 words)Annotated Bibliography

Female delinquency in sociology and criminology

...Female Delinquency in Sociology and Criminology Female delinquency has been increasing for the past few years. Some of the common crimes committed by females are larceny-theft or what we call “shoplifting”, liquor law violations (e.g. underage drinking) and runaways. There are many causes of female delinquency and crime. In Weiler’s “Girls and Violence”, she cited Adler’s findings that one cause of the increase in female violence is due to psychosocial reasons which is to their renunciation of femininity and the adoption of masculine characteristics and values (65). The women's movement has caused assertiveness and was said to encourage young women to adopt certain "male behaviors" such as drinking,...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Sociology: Criminology Theories

...? Criminology theories The body of knowledge which regards criminal activities as social phenomena is criminology. Theories of criminology are crucial in understanding criminality. Criminality entails all matters that have anything to do with breaking the law, making law and reactions that concern law breaking process. Therefore, criminology involves structural arrangements in the society, group roles and other dynamics that affect the society. The film shows what happened in the city of Rio de Janeiro when a bus containing passengers is kidnapped in broad daylight. An armed young man takes bus 174 and threatens to shoot all passengers on board. This occurrence is...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

Sociology and criminology

...?Mainstream criminology vs critical criminology Mainstream criminology has existed much before the critical criminology was espoused. Critical criminology is that theoretical perspective that places emphasis on challenging the conventional understandings and revealing the false perceptions regarding criminal justice and crime. Critical criminology often achieves this by exclusively having a conflict perspective like feminism, critical theory, political economy theory, or feminism. Critical criminology often keeps a perspective of evaluating the crime’s genesis and the kind of justice that prevails in a structure of...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Criminology . Critical criminology

... criminality: The Representation of Crime in the Mass Media. media made criminality. Print. [Online] Available at:,d.d2k [Accessed 27/05/2013] Wilson, D and O'Sullivan, S (2005) ' Re-theorizing the penal reform functions of the prison film.' pp. 471-491 in Theoretical Criminology Vol. 9, No. 4.... Critical analysis of prison films revolves around two elements first being the graphic exploitation of violence and sexual assault in prison films which are predominantly depicted voyeuristically thus...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

American Eagle Company

6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Marketing Management

10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Criminology - sociology -philosophy

...THE SHORT HISTORY OF CRIMINOLOGY HAS BEEN A HISTORY OF FAILURE By number: Sociology 9999 Dis analysis Submitted to (Tutor): Date Introduction Crime tends to have a uniform definition and defines universal application. However, Phillipson Argues that Traditional criminology is a failure. This is because the manner of interpretation of this rationale in traditional criminology has raised questions regarding its affectations to given kinds of objectivity as well as its validity as an independent branch of knowledge (Phillipson:3). This is because society decides the subject of criminologist; he has limited control over formulating the subject. Traditional...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Sociology and criminology for FREE!

Contact Us