Culture plays an important role in the build up of a society. Leung et al (2005) defined national culture “as values, beliefs, norms, and behavioral patterns of a national group” (p.357). This paper analyses different cultures with respect to beliefs, values, norms, behaviors etc…
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Culture plays an important role in the build up of a society. Leung et al (2005) defined national culture “as values, beliefs, norms, and behavioral patterns of a national group” (p.357). It is not necessary that the cultural norms such as values, beliefs, norms and behavioral patterns of one culture are the same as that of another culture. Moreover, it is not necessary that the Roman Catholics in America and India may have same cultural traits. Same way, Muslim religions has many communities such as Shia, Sunnis Kurds, Arabs etc. All these communities have different beliefs and customs even though they belong to the same religion. In short, different cultures have different customs, beliefs and traits even if they belong to same religion. This paper analyses different cultures with respect to beliefs, values, norms, behaviors etc. Literature Review/Discussion “Some cultures put more emphasis on universal commitments (like honesty) while others put more weight on loyalty to particular people and relationships” (Ghemawat and Reiche, 2011, p.2). For example, people from some cultures give more importance to relationships rather than values. Therefore, they may not show any reluctance in telling lies to save the friends and relatives. In courts, plenty of people tell lies to save the friends from punishments. On the other hand, there are many other people who show reluctance in telling lies even for saving the life of beloved ones. This is because of the differences in beliefs and attitudes of people of different cultures. In short, cultures are entirely different in terms of universalism and particularism or rules and relationships. Those who have belief in universalism or groups may exhibit more care towards others whereas those who have belief in particularism or individuals work only for the selfish interests. Killing of enemies of religion is accepted as a holy act by some religions and cultures whereas other cultures argue that killing of even animals cannot be justified. Same way, some cultures have no problem in advocating more than one wife for a male at a time whereas other cultures, advocate only one wife for an adult male at a time. In short, cultural beliefs with respect to social life are different for different cultures. Treatment of women is different in different cultures. For example, Indian culture gives more respect to women whereas Chinese culture has no hesitation in providing hard labor to women. In fact Chinese society is more male dominant compared to societies in other parts of the world. Men- Women equality rests only on papers in China. On the other hand, American and European women enjoy almost similar status with men. It should be noted that belief in religion is extremely strong in Western culture than in Chinese culture. That is why western culture treats women as human rather than an instrument for sexual activities. Culture has long shaped individuals' response to problems. A classic puzzle in the sociology of health and illness is discrepancy between theory and research regarding cultural beliefs and medical care service use. 'Utilization research,' examining individuals' responses to the onset of health problems, has not consistently found an effect of culture on the uptake of formal treatment. While ethnographic research often describes how culture shapes illness behaviors, survey-based studies rarely find significant effects of predispositions once 'need' is controlled (Pescosolido & Olafsdottir, 2010, p.655) People of some cultures are reluctant to seek medical services when they are ill. For example, Jehovah's Witnesses never support blood transfusions. Even in chronic situations, Jehovah's Witnes
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