Running Head: Sociology Drug-Exposed Infants Research Paper Name Name of Professor Introduction Drugs are one of the major environmental factors identified to contribute to biological or physiological deformities in infants…
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One of the major explanations for this uncertainty about the specific impacts of drugs on prenatal and perinatal growth is the fact that these impacts are variable (Lewis & Bendersky, 1995). The duration of exposure to drugs or the interaction among environmental factors and chemicals in drugs can affect the kind and seriousness of the effect. This essay discusses the biological risk factors that can influence prenatal and perinatal development of drug-exposed infants. Biological risk factors can have their beginnings prior to pregnancy, during the prenatal period, the perinatal stage, or the period after birth. Perinatal risks could occur from birth abnormalities or illnesses, or a mixture of prenatal difficulties and complications that take place during the final stage of pregnancy. It is currently believed that numerous extremely low-birth-weight infants have been exposed to pre- and postnatal problems, such as exposure to drugs and other substances (Chandler & Lane, 1996). Not unlike exposure to alcohol, drug use can have major impacts on the growing fetus. For instance, the use of marijuana or cocaine during pregnancy could lead to miscarriage, smaller head size, low birth weight, or premature birth. Prenatal drug exposure has been linked to dysfunctional brain processes. Although there are no marked effects in infant at birth, the effect of prenatal drug exposure normally can become manifest later in life (Kenner & Lott, 2007). These prenatally drug-exposed infants can experience behavioral difficulties and problems concentrating or focusing their attention. The outcomes of drug exposure are more manifest in the early phases of pregnancy when the fetus’s vital organs are growing. Gaining accurate knowledge of the important function of timing is crucial, in that the fetus is greatly at risk at a time when a lot of women are not aware that they are pregnant. As a consequence, even the use of ‘recreational’ drugs can substantially impact the development of the fetus (Chandler & Lane, 1996). Exposure to marijuana produces an unusually large amount of carboxyhemoglobin in the pregnant woman, which can cause a persistent mild fetal hypoxia—reduction of oxygen supply to the body (Green-Hernandez, Singleton, & Aronzon, 2001, 283). Less apparent impacts are delayed cognitive problems as an outcome of hypoxia in the growing central nervous system. Drug exposure could also lead to hypoxic disorder by bringing about vasospasm—contractions of blood vessels—with secondary reduction in blood flow to the damaged parts. These damages can take place in the brain. Placental damages can lead to premature birth, making the infant more vulnerable to the other dangers of prematurity (Green-Hernandez et al., 2001, 283-284). According to Nwoke (2008), opiate-exposed infants have more premature lung development, perhaps resultant to chronic fetal disorder. Prenatal stage is an extremely sensitive stage of the human life, and the risk of structural abnormalities brought about by drugs is more considerable in the embryonic phase. Research on the impacts of drugs on the fetus during the prenatal stages is abundant and varied and can be detrimental to the growing fetus; and the risk includes a range of environmental and biological factors (Nwoke, 2008). It is discovered that drugs can be inside the physiological system of a woman prior to conception and it can affect the fetus at birth or noticeable later in life. Addis and colleagues (2001)
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BMI or Body Mass Index is a tool used to determine over weight and obesity in both children and adults. "BMI is a reliable indicator of body fatness for most children and teens and can be considered as an alternative for direct measures of body fat" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011).
The children born out of a mother on such hard drugs seem to bear the heavier burden. The complexity associated with abuse of drugs has in most cases explained the occurrence of social ills like crimes, injuries and domestic violence. The threat of children who are born of mothers on drugs during periods of pregnancy and long use are immense.
Some women take alcohol during pregnancy while knowing they are pregnant, but others are not aware especially in the early days of the pregnancy. A fight has been launched educating women not to take alcohol during pregnancy, and, for example, in the United States it is an offence for a pregnant woman to take alcohol.
Julien et al. (2010) and Selye (1978) consider introduction of a foreign material to the body as one cause of deviation from this normalness. Exposing systems of an individual to a foreign material over a long period results to addiction. That is, addicts of a particular substance develop the behavior after being exposed to the substance over some time.
They experience severe difficulty in absorbing, in metabolic processes and physically dealing with the consequences upon its consumption. My research is supported by authentic health reports/documents, holding comparative study on the use and effects of drugs and alcohol on men and women.
Use of Nitric Oxide in Infants
Until a decade ago, newborns with this condition were managed with oxygen therapy and ventilation. The advent of new treatment modality, inhaled nitric oxide therapy, has changed the outcome of infants suffering from hypoxemic respiratory failure (1) and there is enormous research going on in this field.
In fact, most of the societies believe that most of the drug addicts lack the motivation and will power to change their behavior. They believe that it is an easy thing to stop using drugs. However, to most of the drug addict, quitting is a problem as this problem affects their brain. Despite this enormous challenge, drug addiction can be overcome through myriad ways of treatment. This will help in stopping of drug abuse and such individuals will be able to lead productive lives.
He has quoted a 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health and pointed out that more than 22 million Americans age 12 and older - nearly 9% of the U.S. population - use illegal drugs. More than 23 million Americans age 12 and older are currently undergoing treatment to stop drug addiction (Cooper).
The anti-coagulant drug can only be administered by a licensed nurse or medical doctor, and it is usually given by either intravenous injection or through subcutaneous injection. If it is administered through an intravenous means, the needle is usually placed under the skin on one of the veins by a health professional.