Nobody downloaded yet

Drug-Exposed Infants - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Running Head: Sociology Drug-Exposed Infants Research Paper Name Name of Professor Introduction Drugs are one of the major environmental factors identified to contribute to biological or physiological deformities in infants…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.9% of users find it useful

Extract of sample "Drug-Exposed Infants"

Download file to see previous pages One of the major explanations for this uncertainty about the specific impacts of drugs on prenatal and perinatal growth is the fact that these impacts are variable (Lewis & Bendersky, 1995). The duration of exposure to drugs or the interaction among environmental factors and chemicals in drugs can affect the kind and seriousness of the effect. This essay discusses the biological risk factors that can influence prenatal and perinatal development of drug-exposed infants. Biological risk factors can have their beginnings prior to pregnancy, during the prenatal period, the perinatal stage, or the period after birth. Perinatal risks could occur from birth abnormalities or illnesses, or a mixture of prenatal difficulties and complications that take place during the final stage of pregnancy. It is currently believed that numerous extremely low-birth-weight infants have been exposed to pre- and postnatal problems, such as exposure to drugs and other substances (Chandler & Lane, 1996). Not unlike exposure to alcohol, drug use can have major impacts on the growing fetus. For instance, the use of marijuana or cocaine during pregnancy could lead to miscarriage, smaller head size, low birth weight, or premature birth. Prenatal drug exposure has been linked to dysfunctional brain processes. Although there are no marked effects in infant at birth, the effect of prenatal drug exposure normally can become manifest later in life (Kenner & Lott, 2007). These prenatally drug-exposed infants can experience behavioral difficulties and problems concentrating or focusing their attention. The outcomes of drug exposure are more manifest in the early phases of pregnancy when the fetus’s vital organs are growing. Gaining accurate knowledge of the important function of timing is crucial, in that the fetus is greatly at risk at a time when a lot of women are not aware that they are pregnant. As a consequence, even the use of ‘recreational’ drugs can substantially impact the development of the fetus (Chandler & Lane, 1996). Exposure to marijuana produces an unusually large amount of carboxyhemoglobin in the pregnant woman, which can cause a persistent mild fetal hypoxia—reduction of oxygen supply to the body (Green-Hernandez, Singleton, & Aronzon, 2001, 283). Less apparent impacts are delayed cognitive problems as an outcome of hypoxia in the growing central nervous system. Drug exposure could also lead to hypoxic disorder by bringing about vasospasm—contractions of blood vessels—with secondary reduction in blood flow to the damaged parts. These damages can take place in the brain. Placental damages can lead to premature birth, making the infant more vulnerable to the other dangers of prematurity (Green-Hernandez et al., 2001, 283-284). According to Nwoke (2008), opiate-exposed infants have more premature lung development, perhaps resultant to chronic fetal disorder. Prenatal stage is an extremely sensitive stage of the human life, and the risk of structural abnormalities brought about by drugs is more considerable in the embryonic phase. Research on the impacts of drugs on the fetus during the prenatal stages is abundant and varied and can be detrimental to the growing fetus; and the risk includes a range of environmental and biological factors (Nwoke, 2008). It is discovered that drugs can be inside the physiological system of a woman prior to conception and it can affect the fetus at birth or noticeable later in life. Addis and colleagues (2001) ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Drug-Exposed Infants Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Drug-Exposed Infants Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
“Drug-Exposed Infants Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Hacking Exposed

...? Hacking Exposed (College Hacking Exposed Adrian Lamo Adrian Lamo is a green hat hacker who hacked a seriesof high-profile computer networks including those of The New York Times, Microsoft, and Yahoo. However, his most notorious computer crime was committed against The New York Times in 2002 when he unauthorizedly accessed into its Times’ private intranet. According to Poulsen (2002), by this hacking, he got unauthorized access mainly into paper’s social security numbers, customers’ order details, and “WireWatch” keywords. The most notable element of Lamo’s hacking activity was that he could access a database of 3000 contributors. Similarly, he could acquire social security numbers of many persons at...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Development Processes in Infants

...? Development Processes in Infants Development Processes in Infants In her book The Developing Person through the Lifespan, Berger describes the main changes that take place in an individual’s life, especially during infancy. Each of the chapters in the book reveals the growth processes in different aspects. This paper will highlight the man ideas brought out in chapters 5, 6, and 7. These chapters discuss the different levels of growth that occur in infants in the first two years of their life. Infant is a Latin-derived word that refers to any child who does not speak. During infancy, multiple growth processes take place rapidly. Chapter 5 of the book describes the...
5 Pages(1250 words)Case Study

Sudden Infants Death Syndrome

...premature; infants born with a birth weight of three and half pounds or less; babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy or those who are exposed to second hand smoke after birth; infants born to mothers who were drug addicts, specifically, cocaine, heroine or methadone; babies whose mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy; infants whose mother had had none or late prenatal care; the second or succeeding infant born to a mother under the age of 20; infants whose sibling(s) died of SIDS; and infants who previously experienced a life threatening event. Through analyzing research data it has been...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Infants Social Relationships

...Running Head: Why are the first two years of a child's life seen as important in the Development of positive relationships Infants Social Relationships By ___________________ Introduction A baby experiences positive relationship in the form of bonds of affection, trust and dependency it receives from a primary caregiver. A baby's attachment to its surroundings upholds an influence not only on his social development but also upon baby's present and future moral and cognitive growth and development. (Peterson, 2002, p5.54) This development has a positive influence on the upbringing of an infant, which in the long run becomes a part of his personality. It is through the influence of...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Drug Exposed Infants

...Drug Exposed Infants Define the problem outlined in the article. This article discusses the fact that there is an increase inillicit drug use by mothers of child bearing age. The mothers are abusing drugs while the child is in utero. This article acknowledges the use of alcohol as well but discusses drug use only. A separate article exists discussing alcohol use. The use of illicit drugs is not relegated to a specific race or socioeconomic class. As a result of this illicit drug use, more babies are leaving hospitals after birth with an increased chance of harm via exposure to sickness, their own...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Development of an Infants Vision

..., special exercises, breast feeding, iron levels) and hamper (drugs, alcohol) visual development for infants Ch 4: What measures can be taken to help maintain vision for infants 4.1: Chapter overview 4.2: How can we minimise chances of deterioration of vision in later life for small children What are the visual testing methods available for this purpose Conclusion Bibliography Abstract This independent dissertation contains a critical evaluation of factors that govern the mechanism of vision development in infants, a topic submitted in part as final year course requirement in the ...
32 Pages(8000 words)Coursework

Deaf infants and development

...What is the impact of an infants diminished hearing in regards to language, social and cognitive development? The children with diminished hearing have some of peculiarities in psychological and physical development. These peculiarities prevent healthy growing and getting skills for everyday life. Diminished hearing makes difficult not only speech formation and word thinking, but the process of cognitive activity in general. Communication is the process of real social rehabilitation and integration. The children with hearing defects should take part in the process of communication of full value. Nowadays children who have problems with hearing are treated in the special educational establishments. Scientists...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Hacking Exposed

...Hacking Exposed Hacking Exposed In an article en d Jonathan James – 15 Year-Old Cybercriminal Who Hacked NASA published in the website What’s the latest? on June 20, 2010 revealed the criminal escapade involving hacking. The US Legal define computer hacking as “intentionally accesses a computer without authorization or exceeds authorized access” (US Legal, 2010, par. 1). Jonathan James, then 15 years of age, hacked the following organizations: NASA, Defense Department, and the Marshall Space Flight Center. The resulting damages were: $1.7 million software stolen from NASA; viewing the Defense Threat Reduction Agency server, the agency of the Department of Defense; and “downloaded the proprietary environmental control software... for the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay


...Exposed If I were Jane, I would tell my co-workers that the email was sent by me to the supervisor, Harold Grimes. Then, I would try to convince my co-workers that their behavior irritated me and the email was the usual response from me to keep myself away from workplace stress, harassment and alienation. Linda Sue Mata stated that, “According to a 2001 report published under the auspices of the Health and Safety Authority (HSA), bullying could further reasonably be regarded as undermining the individual’s right to dignity at work, and may cause problems ranging from stress to serious health problems for the bullied individual as well as lead to low productivity for the organization” (4). When they were not ready to...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Sholud Expectant Mother Be Tested for Drugs

...Criminalization of Maternal Substance Abuse is Not the Answer. New York, NY: Pace University. Lyttle, T. (2006). Stop the Injustice: A Protest against the Unconstitutional Punishment of Pregnant Drug-Addicted Women. The New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy, 9(2). Sannersted, R. (1996). Drugs during Pregnancy. New York, NY: FDA. Stephen, W., & Robert, E. (2009). Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Associated Health Care Expenditures: Journal of the American Medical Association. American Medical Association. Wood, W. (2014). Food and Drug Pregnancy Categories. Boston: College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists. Zuckerman, B. (1991)....
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Drug-Exposed Infants for FREE!

Contact Us