Welfare Reforms and Mass Incarceration.
Welfare reforms are processes that are responsible for changing and management of social protection and safety provisions, but considered appropriate reforms usually debated on…
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The two eras of welfare for single mothers was generally between the years 1935 – 1996. The AFDC took the responsibility for a male wage earning for deserving women. It also had no time limit or even works requirements. No consideration was put forward for any entitlements. Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) is what AFDC reformed to as from 1996 till date. This welfare reform aimed at making women workers. TANF had work requirements that were noncompliant, and there were time limits(DeParle 33). There are several differences between the two eras of reforms for single mothers; AFDC and TANF. The similarities between the two eras are that they both had low payments, the limits in time were wanting , or even the work requirements were noncompliant. There has been a decline in benefits for AFDC over the years since 1970; these benefits had reduced tremendously from when the average family with four members would receive up to$792 to 1994 when they started receiving $435. In a real sense, the value of these declined by up to 60% since 1970. After the passage of Family Act in 1988, most of the benefits that AFDC gave were mostly related to the work that one did. Before we can pin point the differences between, AFDC and TANF. It is necessary to note that these welfare reforms had not aimed at alleviating poverty. They were viewed as issues that need to be tackled and thus the reforms. There was no place in the act they provided job opportunities instead they mandated that all should work(DeParle 100). The major differences between the AFDC and TANF were on several grounds; for example on entitlement; before the passing of the law, federal law indicated that a family and child that have met the basic requirements in specific categories are entitled to cash aid. With the passing of the new law it stipulates that there is no promise of aid neither was their entitlement for aid. This is crucial as it not only denies social collectivity and citizenship to individuals. This has also posed as a challenge to individuals in the capacity of legal aid attorneys. These attorneys are currently being barred from holding suits for class action. Federal welfare money stopped being issued to individual it is currently being offered as block grants. This set up went on as from 1996 to 2002; where money was issued to states to be shared amongst people. The basis at which this money was issued was on their expenditures. With time people developed dependency on the ADFC; that is in the early periods of these reforms. Presently, states have been given the mandate to only spend seventy five percent of this money and in case of recession there is a contingency fund that is provided. With the federal law if no work has been done on issuance of TANF then the individuals are given community service. It is the state that states which jobs would be done when someone is serving in community service. TANF seizes to be issued to individuals after five years of issuance. There were additional changes in food stamp allocation. That is families that lived below the poverty line (which was anything below seven thousand eight hundred dollars for a family of four) were given half the food stamp money cuts. In the American Dream women like Angie, Jewell and Opal managed to survive poverty due to these reforms. Each one of them had maximum relief from this welfare reforms and they finally managed to raise their children due to the terms that were being offered by these welfare reforms(DeParle 39). Question 2 Incarceration rates have increased since 1970 to date. Over 6 million people have gone in prison,
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Also the rate of the incarceration of the black males in United States has increased far more than the rates of incarceration of black males in South Africa. The issue of discussion is whether incarceration can be applied for all the crimes and are the nations ready to bear the cost for high rates of incarceration, are very much fundamental in terms of judging the status of myriad sociological intricacies pertaining to crime and punishment.
In classical Greek mythology, the Furies are a trinity of goddesses who avenge all crime and deviations in society by terrible sentences such as lunacy, harassment and other implacable punishments that lasted a lifetime. The American Furies: Crime, Punishment and Vengeance in the Age of Mass Imprisonment reveals the escalating rates of incarceration in the United States, the fate of those in the penal system, the discrimination within the justice system against minorities and other implications of soaring prison populations.
During the tenure of the Labour Party from 1997-2010, many constitutional reforms were introduced in UK. One criticism that has been bought against the Labour party’s reform agenda is that it was not well-synchronized and there were no definite set of guiding principles behind it but it is already clear, going by the impact of this change over the last decade that the British democracy has changed for good.
These people have been termed as the ‘invisible people’ and the problems that alienate them form the society has been termed as an ‘invisible birdcage’. The United States declared an open war against the Blacks living there, wrapped in the disguise of a war against drugs. Huge amount of arms and ammunitions were used and many were jailed.
In basic terms, the aim of major welfare programs is to get the target individuals out of poverty by making them self-reliant and thereby lead a better life. Following the great depression in the 1930s, most Americans were left without work. Hence, the government stepped in to save the situation by providing the unemployed with Supplemental Security Income (SSI), public housing, medical care aid and food stamps.
The author states that it is worth noting that the welfare being used in the American Dream cannot give the much needed support for women like Angie, Opal and Jewell to enable them uplift their families from poverty. This is because, to some extent, the programs were characterized by socioeconomic inequality.
The decline of the welfare state in 1997 led to a Labour government with Tony Blair as its leader. At that time, it was evident that the Jobseeker's Allowance (JSA) was not fully successful with substantial numbers of people unemployed (Building on New Deal, 2004, p.
the number of prisoners dropped 7.4% - from 72,899 to 67,534 and the trend continues in the years following although the percentage slightly lessened. (Jacobson 58) The continuous drop in prison population New York highlights several important aspects in the state’s criminal