The rapid urban growth in the least develop countries can have positive or negative effects in developing a democratic environment in the countries. The effect depends on how the urban infrastructure expansion rate compares with the rate of influx into the cities. …
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Projections were given that the urban population in these countries would increase considerably into the twenty-first century. However, recent reports indicate slower rates than what was projected (Brockerhoff, 1999, p.757).
There have been debates as to whether there is a relationship between urbanization, economic development and democracy in a given country (Samarasinghe, 1994). The growth of urban population in the least developed countries can have mixed effects on political development in the country. On one hand, the movement of individuals into the urban centers can promote literacy among the individuals who will then be enlightened to understand their fundamental rights. On the other hand, it can also lead to increased informal settlement generated by joblessness among the youths rushing into the towns and cities. The politicians are able to lure these individuals towards their self-interests. How rapid urban growth can contribute to growth of democratic governments Democracy involves the participation of individuals in all the decision-making processes that will affect the social, political, and economic environment as a society. A system of government will be considered democratic if it ensures ‘a peaceful competitive political participation in an environment that guarantees political and civil liberties’ (Samarasinghe, 1994, p.8). Political democracy will be developed through an integration of the government system (characterized by the formal institutions and agencies in the government) and the political rights, and civil rights and freedom. The members of the society are entitled to these political and civil liberties but this will not be achieved if there are no formal and civil institutions to promote this freedom (Samarasinghe, 1994). In this regard, it is first necessary that the individual be informed of their rights and the roles as members of a given society. The level of illiteracy is still high in the least developed countries. The urban centers in these least developed countries have better social infrastructure like schools as compared to the rural areas. The individuals in these areas also have better access to other information sources and they become more enlightened. With the knowledge of their rights, freedoms and privileges, an environment is created for democracy. Besides, debates have erupted on the relationship of economic development and democratization process in a given country. There has been a popular hypothesis that democracy is caused by socio-economic development in a given country (Samarasinghe, 1994) implying that democracy will follow the satisfaction of other basic human needs such as food, shelter and health. Other theorists also assert that there is need for a good institution and citizenry for democratization to occur. Such theories concur with the Lipset thesis (1963, cited in Samarasinghe, 1994) that economic development is a necessity if democracy has to exist. It is observed that the highly industrialized nations are generally characterized by high levels of democracy whereas democracy rarely exists in adverse economic conditions (Samarasinghe, 1994). It then becomes necessary to consider relationship between urbanization and economic development. Even though divergent views may have been provided by many economists
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From the rich elites to the poor peasants statuses, casts and creeds have always been a part of every society. The developing as well as the developed communities works along parallel boundaries between the rich and the poor. The negligence of the rights of the poor and the unequal of distribution of wealth has shown a history of creating restlessness among the group of people who are poor.
In America, democracy comes from status Vivendi where the people are more superior to the government while in Russia democracy stems from the understanding that people identify with both the government and its sovereignty. In America, democracy helps the citizens constantly analyze the reaction of the government towards its people.
The author states that rapid urban growth has the potential to promote the growth of democracy if all considerations are put in place. Growth of democracy for the case of least developed countries depends on the efforts directed towards realizing the change. The efforts include proper distribution of resources among the people.
Factors in Asian Urban Growth
Since latter part of the 20th century till now, Asia has experienced rapid development and urban growth. The rapid urbanization brought with it issues like scarcity of resources and inadequate housing. Like most of the world’s developing countries there was the rise of slums with the main population being those with low incomes.
It has been characterized by huge economic advancement both currently and in the recent past, however, the country has for a long time lacked democracy, which has been proved to cause negative effects on China’s economic growth in the long run. China has focused less on democracy issues due to the reduced sense of urgency depicted by insignificant negative effects of lack of democracy on economic growth.
What might explain why some governments headed by women made greater progress on "women issues", while others did not? Had Hillary Clinton been elected president of the U.S in 2008, the state of women’s rights would have been much improved and women would be offered more favorable opportunities in all fields.
Now they can leave home and be independent. These new independents may apply for a job and do what they had long wanted to do and buy what they had wanted to buy because their parents forbade them not to do or buy before.
Democracy can also be defined as the right to vote in any organization.
The resultant urban centres are cities or towns with distinct characteristics that sets them apart from other parts of the country (Goldfield, 2007). When the urban centre is at last formed, it continues to grow, just like any other sections of the society.
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