Biological and Psychological Explanations of Crime,Criminal Career,Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution and Rehabilitation - Research Paper Example

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Biological and psychological perspectives of crime, crime careers and deterrence, retribution, incapacitation and rehabilitation Name: Institution: Abstract Crime in the society has been a major social problem since human existence. Historical crime deterrence measures such as punishments, fines and incapacitation have done little to deter crime…
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Biological and Psychological Explanations of Crime,Criminal Career,Deterrence, Incapacitation, Retribution and Rehabilitation
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Download file to see previous pages Methods of deterring crimes like retribution and rehabilitation have curtailed the freedoms of the offenders without any significant reduction in the crime levels. Rehabilitation seeks to prevent further crimes and not punishing the offender hence it is an effective method of preventing further crimes in the society. The paper will provide recommendations on how one can become a useful member of society. Biological and psychological perspectives of crime, crime careers and deterrence, retribution, incapacitation and rehabilitation Introduction Crime has existed in the society since time immemorial. The society cannot completely eradicate crime hence various means have been devised to eradicate crime. Key to these means include deterrence mechanisms which include punishments like jail imprisonments and fines. However, devising efficient methods to combat crime entails understanding crime from both the biological and psychological perspectives (Conklin, 2010). There are different organizational structures for crimes which depend on the number of the members involved, the nature of the crime, the communication requirements and the motivations of the criminal activity. Many judicial systems have relied on incapacitation, retribution and rehabilitation to control the crime rate in the society. Interestingly, rehabilitation has proved to be more effective than the other methods which are geared at punishing the offender (Conklin, 2010). This paper will consider the biological and psychological explanations of crime and the organization of crimes. The paper will also address the different forms and functions of punishments and their effects in deterring repeat crimes. Biological and psychological explanations of crime Numerous theories have been advanced by researchers to explain the biological and psychological causes of crime. For instance, Aristotle found out that poverty is the main cause of revolutions and crimes. According to the classical theory of criminology, people choose their criminal behavior if they believe the benefits of crime outweigh the costs. The classical theory argues that it is appropriate to make punishment equal the nature of the crime committed in order to achieve deterrence. Generally biological explanations of crime assert that persons commit crimes due to genetic make up where they are considered ugly in the society. Psychological explanations dwell on the personality imbalances which develop early during childhood (Conklin, 2010). The earliest biological explanation of criminal activity was the atavism theory which was developed by Lombroso in which he concluded that a person is “born criminal”. Atavism is a primitive man in the early age of human evolution hence will commit crime unless he or she is restrained. According to Lombroso theory, criminals can be determined by their physical appearance and attributes (Conklin, 2010). Lombroso theory only investigated the postmortem bodies of dead criminals where his investigations revealed that the structure of the skulls and jaws was different from that of non-criminals. Lombroso argues that criminality is inherited hence people have no control of their criminal behavior. According to him, criminals can be identified by physiognomic defects such as sloping brow which is a symbol of low intelligence and renowned jaw which symbolizes ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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