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Child Mortality in Brazil - Essay Example

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The fourth of the MDGs is known as the reduction of child mortality and its timetable is set at, like all the other MDGs. The MDG4 has three specific goals: the reduction, by two-thirds, of the mortality rate of children under five years old; the reduction of infant mortality rate, and the reduction of the proportion of children immunized against measles…
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Download file to see previous pages y two-thirds, of the mortality rate of children under five years old; the reduction, by two-thirds, of infant mortality rate, and; the reduction, by two-thirds, of the proportion of children immunised against measles (Reduce Child Mortality, 2007). According to Alderman and Behrman, “Infant mortality rate (IMR), a measure of child survival, is considered to be one of the strongest indicators of a country’s wellbeing, as it reflects social, economic and environmental conditions in which children (and others in society) live, including their health care” (cited UNFPA & IPEA, 2007, p. 250). Thus, it is not surprising that in countries with low income one out every ten children dies before reaching the age of five as compared to high income countries which has a comparative ratio of under-five mortality rate of 1 in every 143. Notwithstanding the better statistics in high income countries, the more than 11 million children under-five who die every year is a staggering figure that needed to be solved (EndPoverty2015). In the mid-2000, the Countdown to 2015: Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn and Child Mortality, identified 60 priority countries with the highest rate of child mortality under five. The identification of these countries was underpinned by two criteria: those with 50,000 deaths under-five per annum, and; those with under-five deaths of more than 90 per 1,000 live births every year (UNICEF, 2008, pp.18-19). Among the 60 countries so identified is Brazil, a South American republic. In 1990, Brazil’s annual under-five mortality rate almost reached 60 per 1,000 live births (UNICEF 2007). Figure 1 shows Brazil’s statistics of under-five mortality rate from 1990 up to 2010 indicating a potential ‘on track’ record that could very well result in a 75%...
Although the MDG4 goal is already foreseen to fail by 2015, with majority of the countries unable to meet their 75% reduction goals, the existence of a few countries whose present course is foreseen to make them meet the same goals, proves that MDG4 is achievable. This paper has illustrated the example of Brazil and although Brazil’s economy is on the upswing and better than that of sub-Saharan Africa which is expected to miserably fail in its goals by 2015, there are other countries that are not as economically sound as Brazil that are succeeding such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The implication is that either these countries have found a better way of resolving their health issues to reduce under-five mortality rates or are receiving more support from international institutions in achieving their goals. The more acceptable answer is that these countries, such as Brazil, have properly assessed their health-related problems and have accordingly thought out well-crafted health programmes that meet their health-related problems head on. Although resources are pivotal, the appropriate programme that reaches into the target masses and allows immediate and timely appropriate health interventions are really indispensable and serves as the core factor in reducing under-five mortality rates. Underpinning these factors is a parallel resolve on the part of the governments to solve their health problems and meet the goals of MDG4. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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