International Migration and development - Essay Example

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Name Instructor Course Date International Migration and Development Introduction The intensity of the rate and magnitude of migration across the globe over the past decade has caught the attention of the policy makers, academic enthusiasts and scholars. It also has been affected by the intricate transformation in perspective from the mainstream pessimistic approach to the issue to a rather optimistic approach…
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Download file to see previous pages Effectively remittances have become a means to poverty reduction, income distribution and most importantly economic growth. For the longest time, the topic of migration was discussed from a pessimistic perspective of brain drain resource exploitation. The trend has gradually transformed into a transnational oriented investment strategy with potential investors moving to acquire new ground in new territory where investment opportunities are friendlier. The empirical evidence that has been generously accumulated over the years places the spotlight on the sheer heterogeneous nature of migration development based results of the sending countries and communities. This has specifically had a forestalling effect on any prospective development interactions of migration. Similarly, this has created great disconnect between past and present discussion debate and research on the topic. The rising need for information on the potential economically viable perspectives of migration shows just how conservative past debate has been on the subject (Castles & Miller 140). The starting point for the majority of the immigration theories are on three main levels of analysis that circle around autonomy, political-economic-cultural structures and social and symbolic ties. The two major levels are the micro and macro levels that embody the above mentioned qualities. The micro level interrogates the decision making potential of the individual the power and influence associated with the choice. The macro level on the other hand has a rather diverse approach taking a multi factor approach. It makes consideration of the political-economic-cultural structures as significations of the factors affecting the rate, reason and timing of immigration. Migration Theories and Perspectives Among the numerous theories that claim to have a proper reason as to why people migrate there has been none that has been scientifically accepted as the true explanation of the emergence and perpetration of migration across the globe (Massey et al 7). Some lean towards the more rational micro approach while others the institutional approach (Brettell & Hollifield 7). The earliest of scholarly contribution to the topic of migration suggest that it is an inseparable part of development and that the movement is fundamentally economically driven. The patterns are then suggested to vary depending on factors such as distance and population density. Effectively the majority of persons involved in the migration process will move from low income areas to low income zones and from densely populated areas. This spatial economic equilibrium approach has since influenced a variety of other macro and micro oriented theoretical approaches to the subject (Massey 14). Despite the fact that the association between the mainstream economic theory and the issue of migration is on arms length basis, the greater proportion of the research has been dwarfed by international trade agenda and macroeconomic policies (Human Development Report 11). Micro theories have in their part fail to acknowledge the role of domestic and international flows (Brettell & Hollifield 10). At the macro level, the explanation adopted by the neoclassical theory of migration leans towards the lack of fit between the demand and supply of labour. The particular inconsistencies in the wages ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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