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The strong point of this view is the accommodation of the element of conflict that exists even within an individual. Human nature is constantly waging war against itself with the desires of a person mostly conflicting with outside influences such as learning. A political realist is holistic in thought because of the acknowledgement of the existence and relevance of standards other than the political ones. The political realist refutes the “legalistic moralistic approach” to international politics and cannot subordinate standards of other schools of thought to those of politics. The realists vehemently defend the autonomy of the political sphere against its subversion by other modes of thought without disregarding their existence and importance (Morgenthau 14).
Kenneth Waltz also had a realist perspective to international relations which he called neorealism or structural or defensive realism. This theorist used the turmoil inherent in international relations to restrict the global “net” to its classical international component (Waltz 29). From the neorealist approach examination of the structures of international systems is the best way to understand international politics. The structures of the international system are reflected alliances and other cooperative arrangements between nations (Mearsheimer 32). The polarity of the system becomes the key factor in international relations; and depending on the number of dominant superpowers, a system might be unipolar bipolar or multipolar.
John Measheimer took a different view which he referred to as “offensive realism”. Measheimer’s perspective follows on the principles of Kenneth Waltz’s theory to utilize the “structure” of the international system to derive the behavior of states (Mearsheimer 25). The theoretical foundation of Measheimer outlines that: the international system in anarchic, all
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The arguments of these scholars have mainly followed three schools of thoughts. The three main schools of thoughts in international relations are the Liberalist school of thoughts, the Realist school of thoughts, and the World System School of thoughts (Goldstein & Pevehouse, 2011).
The study also includes the functions of the states, multinational corporations, governmental and non-governmental organizations and inter-governmental organizations. International relations are also known as international studies that cover a wide range of issues surrounding various topics like state sovereignty, nationalism and foreign interventionism.
Realism is the type of IR theory that interprets all aspect of international politics as reducible to a struggle for power, with the state seen as a unitary entity in control (more or less) of its destiny, the main actor but conditioned in its behaviour by the "international anarchy", the absence of government in interstate sphere that is regarded as the hallmark of international politics.
Although I only address these three school s of thoughts, one should take note that I do not argue that these three schools of thoughts are the most crucial school of thoughts in the field of IR. It is, however, beyond this paper to address each school of thoughts.
One such definition of crime that subsumes a wide range of theoretical perspectives could be seen from Clarke and Cornish (1985) assertion that "...crime is purposive behavior designed to meet the offender's commonplace needs for such things as money, status, sex, excitement, and that meeting these needs involves the making of decisions and choices, constrained as they are by limits of time and ability and the availability of relevant information." Thus, from this perspective, offenders are believed to make decisions that appear rational (at least to themselves) to engage in specific criminal acts.
The aim o f the group Boko Haran, whose name means ‘Western education is a sin’ , is to overthrow the government. The plan is to sell the girls into slavery. The group have been attacking people for five
Alex tried to stop the impasse between John and Bruce. In order to do such, Alex has propositioned his thoughts regarding the effect of anarchy on world politics. In this context, Alex has introduced a new dimension regarding power and politics in the United States (Ostrom and Job 541-566).
In fact, Wendt is the creator of completely new vision on the present and the future of the international relations in the contemporary global perspective. In addition, he is known as the representative of