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ce to 6.9 million by the year 2030, the largest group being the Sunni Muslims who form a significant percentage of Muslims in France (Pew Research Centers Religion & Public Life Project, 2011). Muslim domination in France dates back to the 9th century when the Muslims captured the cities of Southern France (Greenfield, 2014). In 1543, the Muslims expelled Christians from Toulon and converted Toulon Cathedral into a mosque (Gemie, 2010). France regained the city of Toulon briefly afterwards. Due to this growing population of Muslims and the rise in incidences of terrorist attacks associated with Muslims, France alongside most Western Europe countries have come up with policies to restrict the continued trend of increasing Muslim immigrants (Euro-islam.info, 2014).
In 1872, France passed a law that prohibits the collection of information on race and beliefs as part of its population census (Cosgrove, 2011). This law ensured the coexistence of various religions and races in the country without fear of intimidation or domination (Therrien, 2007). The law gave assurance of the state’s impartiality and lack of keenness on religious practices. In 1901, France passed the law on association, the Laicite concept of the state’s involvement in religion started to come up (Unaoc.org, 2014). An enactment for the lack of involvement of spiritual affairs in government matters, and the lack of involvement of the state departments in religious issues. In 1905, France passed a law on the distinction of religion from the state, in order for France to adopt the policy of French Secularity. Adoption of Laicite is a core element of the constitution of France, which states meticulously that France is a secular state (Kuru, 2009). According to President Sarkozy, this issue of secularism made it a taboo to allow aspects of religion in state affairs (Christian Today, 2008). The president refers to this as negative secularism, referring to Islam in Riyadh as one of the most adorable
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The Électricité de France can be considered as the leader in the energy sector and it has also been dynamic in all the aspects of the electricity value chain. The company has an excellent business model where a proper balance has been maintained between the regulated and the non regulated activities (EDF, 2009).
National development strategies in encouragement of trade are visualized as a critical dimension in the international economic arena (Abbott 276). Nevertheless, trade is only a single element of measures that dictates growth and development projections. Several factors are conditional in realization of trade benefits through liberalization.
It is the most evident form of independence from the all-encompassing body or organization of nations around the world. It gives nations freedom from intervention, unless otherwise specified according to agreed policies. Domestic jurisdiction is what sets nations apart and breaks down homogeneity.
The threats include pollution from a wide range of land-based sources (industry, municipalities, and agriculture), extensive resource depletion due to unregulated fishing and mariculture, oil pollution due to waste dumping, and many others.
Intensive efforts to create an effective marine environment regime to address the threats were initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1991.
The above mentioned undertakings are just a tip of the iceberg as the list could be endless. This is the reason as to why non governmental organizations are viewed as the conscience of rte world as they bring to light issues that need public attention and also spearhead in finding the resolutions.
But by the early 2000s, the resistance can be seen to this momentum, even outright opponent, had made themselves known within French politics and society. In the early years of the twenty-first century there can be seen a marked difference with the respect to France's commitment to the construction of Europe, due more to external events than to changes of government.
fferent propositions which are political groupism which indicates that what is considered the most important thing by all states is striving to acquire as much resources as they can accumulate, egoism where the states consider themselves the most important of all actors,
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