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Alleviating Problems in Police Agencies - Literature review Example

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The author discusses the notion of the Rule of law and how it developed within and through the Western Notions of democracy. The author explores the position vis a vis the two democratic nations which have led the world in their quest for human rights and whose legal systems are deemed to be the envy…
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Alleviating Problems in Police Agencies
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Download file to see previous pages According to Sheldon, the Declaration of Rights reflects "three dominant ideologies present during the American Revolution and the founding of the American republic. These political philosophies were British liberalismClassical Republicanism and Christianity," (Sheldon: 16).
It can be seen that the Western Ideals of Government and Democracy are directly a result of the way ancient Roman and European philosophers sought to understand the human nature by the concept of the "state of nature." (Kavka 1986:87).This theory sought to look at human beings after stripping them of all their societal attributes, in the hope of uncovering their common characteristics. (Jean 1986:46) Through this theory, they hoped to discover an effective theory of Government. For Hobbes man is purely motivated by self-interest and in his notion of the state of nature all humans are competing with each other. (Jean 1986:58).For Locke of the state of nature reveals the obligations of humans to each other in terms of natural rights to life, liberty, and property. In contrast for Rousseau in line with the tradition of the modern natural law, there was a need to answer the "challenge of skepticism" and this would require a step by step approach to human nature based on self-interest. (Jean 1986:69).For Hobbes men are politically obligated to each other based on their own selfish interests which are their state of nature. The notion of the state of nature assumes that it is each man for him out there and every man is vulnerable. This he shows is not a desirable "state" to be in at all and therefore there is a need for an invisible assurance of security. For him, this state of “ perpetual and unavoidable war”, will cause anarchy and will not benefit anyone. (Kavka 1986:87).Here he brings in his notions of the social contract which will help this society to restore stability and create a  civil society. The first and most important law of nature commands that each man be willing to pursue peace when others are willing to do the same, all the while retaining the right to continue to pursue war when others do not pursue peace. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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