The article Soil and Microbes first gives a brief introduction with properties of different soils and their nature. Then the article deals at length about various microorganisms present in the soils, their detection, isolation and their pathogenic effects followed by references.
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Soil and Microbes
Due care should be taken while handling the soil samples collected from different locations. Preliminary examination of the soil samples can be carried out by wetting the soil sample with water and squeezing them between the fingers to ascertain the type of soil, if the soil is sandy it falls apart, silty soil gives a flour type feeling and if the soil has clay then it holds together.
Soil samples may contain microorganisms such as Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Actinomycetes and Viruses. All the microorganisms may either exist singly or in colonies. There are various techniques to detect form, pattern and arrangement of microorganisms in soil such as Microscopic methods and Microscopic methods plus culturing.
Microscopic methods involve examination of soil samples under a light microscope by using simple stains such as phenol aniline blue and fluorescent stains such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), acridine orange, rhodamine (fluoresces red), europium chelate (europium (iii) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate), DAPI (4'-6'-diamidino-2-phenyl-indole), ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33258 (bisbenzimide). While the first method can be adopted with any bright field white light microscope assuming that light can be transmitted through the object under examination but in the second method, the stain emits light at a visible wavelength on illumination with ultraviolet light.
In microscopic methods plus culturing the soil samples are impregnated with agar or polyacrylate resins and sectioned into thin plates and examined by direct microscopy.
One more method called the fluorescent antibody technique is the only technique that can locate and identify microorganisms simultaneously in intact soil samples or sections. In this technique the antibodies to microbial cells are generated by injecting the cells under study into a suitable animal (guinea pigs or rabbits) which produce antibodies to the microbial cells that can be isolated from the serum samples of the animals. The antibodies are proteins that can be reacted with FITC to produce FITC-antibody conjugates which will adhere only to the correct microbial cells if applied to a soil sample. Once the excess FITC-antibody conjugate is washed and removed, only those microbial cells will fluoresce, can be located and identified by epifluorescence microscopy. A recent method uses monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. Certain other methods like Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA assays) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods can also used to detect the microbes in soils (Source - United Nations Water Virtual Learning Centre).
Isolating bacteria and viruses or virus like particles (VLP) from the soil samples is being investigated through two techniques i.e., Epifluorescence Microscopy [EFM] and Transmission Electron Microscopy [TEM] using two elution buffers (1% potassium citrate and 10Mm Sodium pyrophosphate) (Sampling Natural Viral Communities from Soil for Culture-Independent Analyses by Kurt E. Williamson, K. Eric Wommack and Mark Radosevich).
Every possible care should be taken to avoid the microorganisms (Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Actinomycetes and Viruses) to come into physical contact with the human body or enter into
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Soil and Microbes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words. https://studentshare.org/science/1521127-soil-and-microbes.
“Soil and Microbes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1521127-soil-and-microbes.
Moreover, it also occurs in the land. “Oil spills happen when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean. Equipments breaking down may also cause oil spills.” (Oil Spills, 2002). The factors lying behind the marine oil spills are due to the human activity or through any natural disaster like storms and hurricanes.
This trait is also utilized in the production of industrial goods. These biocatalysts are becoming more popular and preferred over chemical catalysts in conversion reactions because they are environmentally friendly, more economical, and have cleaner action
The amount of air and water within a sample of soil affects its behavior. The sizes and types of particles that constitute a particular soil affect its properties and thus its load-carrying ability and compressibility. However the soil we find is hardly perfect for any kind of construction before any steps are taken to harden the soil.
According to the research, microbes and their allied biological activities can be well applied in biogeochemical cycles, agriculture, medical microbiology, food technology and biotechnology. More advanced research on both harmful and effective microbes would lead to the development of applications which would facilitate betterment in human life.
Deeply situated colonies are larger and lenticular (Bryant et al., 18). Electron microscopic observations show an accumulation of lightly stained carbohydrates in its cytoplasm (Lou et al., 1486).
The variety of forms in the Agaricomycetes is unmatchedeven though other fungi generate macroscopic fruiting bodies as well.
Agaricomycetes’ fruiting bodies range from milimeter-scale cyphelloid forms to the giant polypores Rigidoporus ulmarius and Bridgeoporus
This process is controlled by a number of processes such as land use, human values and policies, climate and stored nutrients. Resilience is diminished by a number of varying factors which include: toxic pollution, loss of biodiversity and
Mineral elements include carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous, oxygen, and trace elements. Carbon is the main source of energy in microbes and can be obtained from carbohydrates, fats, lipids, or proteins (Chaudhary,
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