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Describing concepts of Microbilogy - Essay Example

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Microbiology involves the study of microscopic organisms-bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoan as both disease causative agents and for beneficial purposes. Branches of microbiology include environmental, medical, industrial, agricultural, water and food microbiology…
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Describing concepts of Microbilogy
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Concepts of microbiology Affiliation: Microbiology involves the study of microscopic organisms-bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoan as both disease causative agents and for beneficial purposes. Branches of microbiology include environmental, medical, industrial, agricultural, water and food microbiology. Microbiology is applicable in everyday life in various ways. Personal hygiene prevents autoinfection with bacteria. Regular and thorough washing of hands with soap and water, cleaning and disinfection of the clockrooms and bathrooms minimizes risk of feco-oral infections. Garments are disinfected during washing because they trap disease-causing microbes too (Pommerville 2010).
Food fermentation is the anaerobic conversion of carbohydrates to alcohol using microbes such as Saccharomyces spp, Lactobacillus spp. It results in products variety that can be preserved for long. Fermentation products include cheese, alcoholic drinks, sauer kraut among others. In agriculture, microbiology has improved soil characteristics and increase plant productivity. Biofertilizers that contain living organisms such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter help in nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorous and stimulating plant growth hormones. Manure from animal waste contains microbes that help in soil aeration. They are cost effective and reduce soil pollution through use of inorganic fertilizers.
Food preparation involves thorough washing of fruits and vegetables and cooking of foods. This ensures any harmful microbes are killed. Examples are milk pastuerization and boiling of drinking water. Utensils, pots and surfaces in cooking areas should also be thoroughly cleaned. Proper waste disposal reduces environmental pollution. Degradable matter is breakdown by microbes to form manure. Sewage water is drained into septic tanks where it is processed before discharge into rivers and streams. Nondegradable waste products are burnt and others recycled. A student is able to learn microorganism identification using the various characteristics of microbes. They are able to use differential, selective or enrichment media to grow microorganisms, gram staining and microscopy to identify cell structures, components and other morphological characteristics.
Understand current and emerging topics in microbiology in relation to healthcare. Advances in microbiology diagnostic techniques have evolved. Research is ongoing on issues of drug resistance. Current research studies on use of microorganisms as gene vectors in disease treatment. Microorganisms are used for production of cellulose, solvents, enzymes, amino acids, biopolymers such as polysaccharides and polyesters are produced by microorganisms. Corynebacterium spp is used in production of L-glutamate and L-lysine.
In pharmaceutical microbiology, mass drug production using yeast such as Streptomyces and Penicillum. Ensuring the drugs contains minimum contaminants and they are safe and effective for use. Vaccines are made from weakened or killed forms of a microbe or its toxins. They stimulate the body’s immune system to recognize it and keep memory. Involves knowledge of vaccine type, dosage, storage and the type of immune response it stimulates.
Clinical practices include clinical presentations of a disease in diagnosis which vary depending on host immune mechanism. It involves analysis of the patients’ history, specimen collection and processing. In combination diseases can be diagnosed accurately. Respiratory syndromes, both bacterial and viral may have similar symptoms (Pommerville 2010).
Antibiotics act against microbes that cause disease in the body e.g. bacteria and fungi. Prescription and administration of antibiotics and other drugs depends on disease progress. Knowledge of drug composition is also important. Underdose of drug may lead to drug resistance; overdoses are harmful to the body and may be fatal.
Microbiology involves public health, disease control and prevention. This deals with healthcare at a population level rather than on individual level. It’s educating the community on how to reduce risks of infection by microbes. It encourages early diagnosis and reduces the negative impact of disease-related complications.
Maintaining sanitation in a hospital involves disposing used equipment and using sanitizing agents to minimize nosocomial infections. Sterilization and disinfection procedures used use of ethanol, acetone, ethylene dioxide, radiation and autoclaves among others. Washing of hands between patients contact is important.
Understanding host defense mechanisms, skin, mucous membranes that prevent microbes from entering the body. Specific immune responses from the lymphoid system and antibodies, nonspecific immune responses protect the host against infections. These factors determine the virulence and degree of resistance or susceptibility of host.
Reference
Pommerville, J. (2010). Alcamos Fundamentals of Microbiology. New Jersey: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
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