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Remediation technologies - Assignment Example

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Environmental studies Assignment, Environmental studies A. Read comparison of technologies (9 PDF files) Complete the following information for each technology in table format:
1-    Brief definition of the technology
2-    Contaminants of concern
3-    Duration of the project
4-    Cost 
Number
Technology
Brief definition of the technology
Contaminants of concern
Duration of the project
Cost 
1
Contaminated
Soil
Excavation
It the act of removing top soil in a contaminated site to avoid people coming into contact with the soil and treating the soil or disposing it in a land fill.
Chemical spills
Vary from a day to few years
Dependent on remote site, equipment, and type of treatment,
The process is costly a requires machinery and technological knowledge on how to tackle it.
2
Phytoremediation
It is the use of green plants and Microbes to treat contaminated soils.
Chemicals in top soil, surface water and underground water
Years to decades
The process is the cheapest since the process is natural
3
Bioremediation
The use of Microbes in cleaning contaminated soils and water
Oil products
Few Months to years depends on nutrients area of spill and depth.
Not as costly as other methods.
4
Pump
and
Treat
It is the process of pumping contaminated underground water to the surface for treatment.
Dissolved chemicals
Years to decades
Expensive due to the long duration of time.
5
In
situ
Thermal
Remediation
The application of direct heat treatment to chemicals in underground water and deep in the soil. The chemicals dissolve and move towards wells to be pumped to surface and treated.
Chemicals in non-aqueous liquid phase.
Few months to years depending on concentration, depth contaminants deposits, and types of soils.
Costly due to expertise required, machinery and use of electricity.
6
Monitored
Natural
Attenuation
This is the taking of samples from the soil to monitor the natural process of decreasing contaminants in the soil.
Chemicals in the soil including oil spills.
The years to decades.
Less costly as it is just monitoring.
7
In Situ Chemical Oxidation
It is a process used to treat chemicals and oil spills deep in the ground using oxides without coming to the surface.
Solvents, pesticides and fuels
Few months to several years
Less costly as duration is quite small compared to In
situ
Thermal
Remediation
8
In Situ chemical Reduction
It is a treatment method that uses reducing agents to transform chemicals less toxic forms
Dense non aqueous phase liquids, Industrial solvents trichloroethene and clean up metal chromium
Few months to several years
Not as expensive as compared to In
situ
Thermal
Remediation hence, relatively cheap.
9.
Incineration
It is the use of high temperatures to treat and destroy hazardous material in soils water in an incinerator
Contaminant Solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides
Few weeks to several years. This depends on amount of contamination.
Expensive as requires expensive machinery and a lot of energy to heat up the chemicals.
 
B. Watch the videos in the 10th PDF file (remediation technologies 11) and answer the following question:
Do you think that the companies/people who applied those technologies have well enough reasons for choosing those methods? Explain your answer.
The companies and people who apply the reclamation methods are justified to apply the techniques in reclaiming the soil. The techniques are effective and well suited for the different degrees of contamination. The costing is effective for each technique used and well suited for the treatment.
 
C. Watch those two videos:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ipbc-6IvMQI
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fp4CQhC_uPs
The second one from minute 15:30 until the end
Pick an environmental disaster story similar to Silent Spring(first video) that you are aware of And investigate the following:
1-    Source of the contamination, and the pollutants Kaw, Kow, and BCF (fish)
2-    Its distribution in the released environment (e.g. instantaneous, continuous, cyclic, extent of the release…)
3-    Environmental issues it has caused
4-    Possible remediation strategies (from: Part A, justify your choice)
(the assignment should 1 full page, double-spaced, but two pages order submitted just in case)
GMOs in Brazil: Impact and effects on the local population and the environment
Genetically modified seeds introduced to Brazil from the USA in a bid to step up food production. The introduction of GMO corn was with a promise of increased yields, resistant crops to pests and diseases.
However, just after three years the effects of the introduction of the corn are disastrous. The pests have become more resistant to the crop and caterpillars are growing at an alarming rate. The caterpillars have invaded farms in large numbers and their growth is making an ecological imbalance in the ecosystem. The sizes of caterpillars have drastically changed. Each caterpillar is now larger and more destructive. Attempts to spray them with chemicals have been futile as they are more resistant to pesticides. Farmers who adopted the crop now depend more on pesticides than ever before and in turn pollute the environment on a larger scale. The nation is facing shortage of food after the pests destroyed large tracks of corn.
To try to rehabilitate the environment that is being destroyed it is important to withdraw the GMO corns from the fields and apply Monitored Natural attenuation (Direitos). This will control the modification of caterpillar genes and in turn control their numbers. The move will also reduce the use of pesticide and reduce the levels of pollution in the environment. This method is suitable since the impact is not so big and it is the cheapest in rehabilitation. The method also does not require a lot of attention allowing the community to proceed with other economic activities.
Works Cited
Direitos, Terra de. In historic ruling, Brazilian court bans release of Bayer GM corn. 13 March 2014. 15 April 2014 . Read More
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