Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Name 1 Name Class Instructor Date Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization I. Introduction Homer’s characterization of Athena is the prevailing view of the goddess that has come down to us from antiquity. In The Odyssey, Athena acts as guide, adviser and shield to Odysseus…
Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.3% of users find it useful
Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization
Read Text Preview

Extract of sample "Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization"

Download file to see previous pages It is perhaps symptomatic of the aggressive Mycenaean civilization that Athena, the worship of whom may have begun as a fertility rite, morphed into the Olympian warrior goddess. Yet hers is not the persona of the bloodthirsty and vengeful immortal. In this paper, I will characterize Athena as a goddess whose civilizing inclinations emphasized intellect and wisdom and, as such, established her as the archetypal Greek deity. II. Defender and preserver We see the representation of Athena as restorer of social order in The Odyssey, which culminates in the destruction of Penelope’s suitors. Athena plays a key role in this denouement, lending her wisdom to the proceedings and bringing equilibrium to Odysseus and his kingdom. Name 2 Through everything, her overriding concern is to ensure Odysseus’ restoration as king and to pacify the kingdom of Ithaca (Clarke, 81). To that end, she becomes profoundly involved in the overthrow of the suitors, aiding Odysseus with her cunning, changing his outward form to deceive his enemies and ordering events to his benefit. Balance and civilization are her concern; Athena is not only concerned with returning Odysseus to the throne but to ending the threat of vendetta from the suitors’ families and followers, to “replace anarchy with justice in Ithaca” (Ibid). ...
In this form, she stands aloof from the sensuous pursuits of her fellow Olympians, such as her father Zeus and Aphrodite, the very image of purity and civilized rectitude. Zeus personified male virility, recklessly engaging in sexual relations with mortal women, identifying him as the supremely powerful life force but flawed and given to temptation. Conversely, though she personally “inspired male heroes to deeds of valor and discovery,” Athena remains chaste, preferring to avoid subsuming her identity to some male partner through the act of sexual union (Kinsley, 139). This image of Athena stands in direct contrast to earlier iterations of her fertility goddess divinity, a change that likely reflects the evolution of early Greek culture and its affinity for learning, intelligence and civilization in a barbarous, warlike world. Name 3 III. Divine contrast – Athena and predilections of the Olympians Athena’s civilizing orientation sets her apart from her arrogant, controlling fellow Olympians. For a civilization that came to embody the virtues of culture and invention, Athena had a special meaning and purpose. Whereas the most powerful denizens of Olympus were elemental gods, Athena stood for something that the people of Athens and other city states could understand and appreciate, something other than fear of Olympian retribution. It is no accident that there are more sanctuaries devoted to the worship of Athena than to Poseidon in population centers. “Poseidon…was never closely associated with the high achievements of the polis-society, and dissociated from moral values, intellectual advance or technology” (Schumacher, in Marinato & Hagg, 65). As Schumacher explains, the contrast between the mighty sea god ...Download file to see next pages Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization Essay”, n.d.)
Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization Essay. Retrieved from
(Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization Essay)
Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization Essay.
“Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization

How the River Nile Informed Every Aspect of Egyptian Civilization

...Discuss how the River Nile informed every aspect of Egyptian Civilization Introduction The Nile, (called “Bahr an-Nil” or “”Nahr an-Nil” in Arabic) is the father of the African rivers and the longest river in the world. It rises south of the equator and flows northward through northeastern Africa to drain into the Mediterranean Sea. It has a length of about 4,132 miles (6,650 kilometers) and drains an area of about 1,293,000 square meters (3,349,000 square kilometers).8 It is the only river that flows directly northward, and has the distinction of being the most intensely studied and most fabled river in our planet. Despite flowing through one of the harshest deserts on earth and traveling its last 1,500 miles without a single tributary...
10 Pages (2500 words) Assignment

Sacred Scripture and Cosmogony in Islam and Christianity

... a beginning so that Muslims can connect to their existence, and to provide the context for their relationship with Allah. Creation helps Christians to connect to their place and context in time and space, and this paper will compare it with Islam. The second element that will be discussed in this brief essay will be one that will perhaps surprise many people as a commonality between Islam and Christianity: the concept of the Virgin Mary. Unbeknownst to, or perhaps just not realized, by many Christians is that the Virgin has a sacred place in Islam, and is highly revered in Islam (Eaton, Gai, 1982, 42). Creation in Christianity and Islam Unlike Islam, everything in the life of a Christian is not guided by the doctrine of Christianity...
8 Pages (2000 words) Coursework

The European Defense Community

...The European Defense Community Introduction The European Defense Community (EDC) was an excellent but aborted plan to counter the planned rearmament of West Germany. Its plan was proposed in 1950 René Pleven, the French President of the Council (known as Prime Minister after 1958). The impetus for the creation of the EDC is to provide a pan-European defense force which will serve as an alternative to the proposed accession to NATO “meant to harness its military potential in case of conflict with the Soviet bloc” (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc). It was established by the Treaty of Paris on 27 May 1952 by the six members of the ECSC (Palmowski). The European Defense Community is considered by many as the most ambitious project...
8 Pages (2000 words) Case Study

Wester Civilization: The Italian Renaissance

... for workers leading to an increase in wages. Serfdom became outdated and due to higher wages, many peasants’ living standard increased. Consecutively, there was the rise of wealthy merchant families that provided the incentive, resources and money for the Renaissance. The medieval society’s exhaustion motivated northern Italy’s intellectuals to make a new start by creating a new civilization through pursuing rebirth and revival that would be referred to as the Renaissance. This drastic break with antiquity was just the start. (Brown, L. 2007). This paper provides a discussion on the Italian Renaissance. Understanding the Italian Renaissance aids in the appreciation of how its cultural traces that have survived emerged from its political...
11 Pages (2750 words) Research Paper

Natural Rights And Fundamental Defense Of Liberty

...Natural Rights And Fundamental Defense Of Liberty The question of whether natural rights can be justified is paradoxical as natural rights need no justification otherwise they would not be universal and unable to stand as a fundamental defense of liberty for the individual as proposed in the context of Enlightenment. In positing natural rights as foundational, their basis is in “existence” or life as experienced through the autonomous individual. The categorical imperative as outlined by Kant is expressed through the 'a priori' of moral consciousness which can be seen in examples of later declarations of human rights that seek to articulate or delineate “the universal rights of man” as an expression of the moral sentiment...
6 Pages (1500 words) Term Paper

Terroristic Attack and the Effects on Western Civilization

...9/11 and the effects in America and Western nations Outline Introduction 9/11 and the effects in America and Western nations Conclusion Works cited 9/11 and the effects on western civilization Introduction In the modern world, terrorists’ tactics and operations have largely been boosted by the free nature of societies. This free nature of societies is also attributed to lack of ability by a nation to foresee, prevent or even mitigate the aftermath of terrorists activities. Some of the recent attacks in western nations and America in particular are just but a few examples of terrorists’ infiltration on western nations and America. Western values are not only attacked in their home countries but also abroad in countries...
6 Pages (1500 words) Term Paper

The Effects of Drought on Civilization

... Effects of Drought Natural phenomenon along with being very beautiful and useful for humankind, sometimes become very disastrous and demolishing for them. They show a negative side of nature and indicate some very demolishing aspects of nature, which the humans cannot ignore because of possessing less power. These incidents remind people that they do not have the control over everything and they are very small in front of such natural calamities. However, with strategic and wise planning one can reduce the severity of its effects but cannot save from them completely. Therefore, the areas that often face droughts should remain alert and stimulate their weather experts to continuously analyze weather conditions and give... of Drought ...
6 Pages (1500 words) Research Paper

The Rules Governing the Insanity Defense

...Critically evaluate the rules governing the insanity defense in order to determine when a person should not be criminally liable because of their mental condition at the time they committed an alleged offence Introduction Is insanity defense viable? Insanity defense can be dated back to the biblical times and can be attributed to have emerged from a myth that mentally ill individuals were not to be held responsible for act committed especially if the acts committed by a sane person would have been criminal. However, this defense took shape in the modern sphere in 1843 in the Daniel M’Naghten1 case. The court found him insane whom in an assassination attempt to Robert Peel the British Prime Minister, mistakenly killed his secretary...
18 Pages (4500 words) Coursework

Prosecutorial and Judicial Misconduct along with Ineffective assistance by criminal defense counsel

...Prosecutorial, Judicial Misconduct and Ineffective Assistance by Criminal Defense Counsel Prosecutorial Misconduct The perfect example of a case of prosecutorial misconduct involves abuse of the prosecutorial power of discretion, where failure is witnessed in exercising authority to determine which offenses to be brought before the justice system. A prosecutor decides which offenses are weighty enough to appear before the court and which to be disbanded on grounds of evidence. An illustration of such abuse was witnessed when Durham County Prosecutor Michael B. Nifong brought a case of rape before the court without investigating and North Carolina Attorney General moved in, dismissing rape charges leveled against members of Duke University...
6 Pages (1500 words) Essay

History of European Civilization from the Holy Crusade to the Renaissance Era

...Western Civilization Introduction Western civilization refers to the development of human organization that originated from the Middle East around 3000 BC. European history of civilization concentrates on the classical developments that originated in the Mediterranean region. These developments are strongly linked with the Roman Empire that gave rise to the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. Through the church, the Pope influenced or controlled Europe for many centuries. The Holy Crusades that were meant to liberate the Byzantine Empire illustrate Pope’s control on European affairs. The Roman Catholic lost its influence on Europe following the start of the reformation. The reformation period forced people to think beyond the ordinary...
6 Pages (1500 words) Term Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Sacred Virtues: Athena and the Defense of Civilization for FREE!

Contact Us