Chapter 5 - Assignment Example

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In the research study, the sample population is studied at an interval of 16 months to examine developmental effects. The main disadvantages of longitudinal design are participant attrition and conditioning. They are also time-consuming and…
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Chapter 5 Assignment Chapter 5 Assignment The study takes a longitudinal design. In the research study, the sample population is studied at an interval of 16 months to examine developmental effects. The main disadvantages of longitudinal design are participant attrition and conditioning. They are also time-consuming and expensive to conduct. The study examines the relationship between peer deviance and delinquent behavior in early adolescence and the impact of specific temperament dimensions on this relationship. It identifies the specific temperament dimensions that moderate the relationship between peer deviance and subsequent delinquent behavior. The article defined temperament as the combination reactivity, behavior and self-regulation unique to an individual, which are biologically predisposed, have an early onset and are stable with time. Some distinct aspects of temperament have been frequently addressed in prior research. These aspects include effortful control of attention, regulation of emotions, rhythmicity, activity level, negative emotionality and social approach vs. inhibition.
Wills and Dishion hypothesized that difficult temperament contributes to poor self-control. Lower quality of parent-child relationships and association with deviant peers. The interaction of these factors creates an environment for the development of substance use and antisocial behavior in adolescence. They propose that vulnerability to risk factors and negative social influences are factors of deficient self-control and difficult temperament. The secondary goal was to examine gender as a factor in the relationship between temperament, peer deviance, and delinquent behavior.
The study includes 704 participants who were early adolescents, 76% African-American, 22% Caucasian, 52% male and 2% other. Temperament was measured on a 4-point scale, 1 representing usually false and 4 representing usually true. The scale defined temperament using five dimensions; general activity level, flexibility-rigidity, mood quality, sleep rhythmicity and task orientation. The researchers determined peer deviance by measuring the number of the participants’ friends who; threatened to hit someone or hit someone, damaged property, carried a knife or a gun, used alcohol, marijuana or other illegal drugs and got into a physical fight. The delinquency rate was determined by measuring the following behaviors; running away from home, stealing, truancy, fighting and breaking. Peer deviance was reported to be higher in males. Males were reported to be more active, less flexible, less positive affect and less task oriented but with a small difference. Read More
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