StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Countries - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Social learning is general theory which attempts to offer an explanation of the acquisition, maintenance, and all over change in criminal and deviant behavior that embraces components such as social, nonsocial, and cultural factors operating both to motivate and control criminal behavior and both to promote and undermine conformity.
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.1% of users find it useful
Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Countries
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Countries"

Download file to see previous pages In criminology, the Social Bonding Theory (which was earlier known as the Social Control Theory) proposes that exploiting the process socialization and social learning builds self-control and reduces the inclination to indulge in such behavior that is considered and recognized as antisocial. The Social Bond Theory proposes that "people's relationships, commitments, values, norms, and beliefs encourage them not to break the law." ("Wikipedia", 2006). The Social Bond Theory has evolved dramatically throughout the years, not only with its titled name, but through the separately distinguished proposals of different persons, and also by the way it has been accepted and understood by not only criminologists themselves, but also the world in general. The evolution of this theory is of particular importance, and the originality of it must be recognized and understood just as much as the modern day from of the theory.
The Social Bond Theory is a topic of great discussion and even greater importance, in that its assistance and propositions in regards to criminology have aided the field in many ways. There are several different forms of the theory itself, which have been proposed by several persons over the years, and yet each theory's basis remains the same - to understand the ways in which it is possible to reduce the likelihood of criminality developing in individuals, which is, of course, a dramatically new stance in criminology altogether.
The purpose of this paper is to review and understand the different perspectives and proposals which have been taken on the Social Bond Theory, the importance of the theory itself, and to thoroughly discuss each of the assumptions, propositions, empirical findings, and other primary key elements of the Social Bond Theory. This is what will be dissertated in the following.
Literature Review:
Out of the many different assumptions taken on the Social Bond Theory, there are six which are especially prominent. These six persons consist of (in chronological order): Albert J. Reiss, Jackson Toby, F. Ivan Nye, Walter Reckless, David Matza, and Travis Hirschi.
The earliest form of the theory was proposed by Albert J. Reiss, who proposed that delinquency was "behavior consequent to the failure of personal and social controls." (Reiss, 1951: 196). Reiss believed that the failure to internalize socially accepted and prescribed norms of behavior, as well as the lack of social rules that prescribe behavior in the family, the school, and other important social groups; are all also evidently important in the proposal of the Social Bond Theory. Reiss also proposed that the main factor was that personal control problems stemmed from a juvenile's inability to refrain from meeting their needs in a psychiatric sense. Reiss' theory launched a series of studies into insulation and vulnerability factors affecting delinquency.
Jackson Toby was another early theorist with his own separate take on the Social Bond Theory. He was the first to introduce the concept of 'stakes in conformity', which in the simplest terms dealt with how much a person has to lose when he or she breaks the law. Toby (1957) ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507781-can-it-explain-why-the-united-states-has-higher-crime-rates-than-other-countries
(Can It Explain Why the United States Has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Essay)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507781-can-it-explain-why-the-united-states-has-higher-crime-rates-than-other-countries.
“Can It Explain Why the United States Has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507781-can-it-explain-why-the-united-states-has-higher-crime-rates-than-other-countries.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Countries

Islam in Higher Education in United States

Islamophobia can be viewed as a social problem such as racism, sexism, or other forms of discrimination. These types of hate-based beliefs are created from ignorance of other cultures primarily, and should be unacceptable as a practice in higher education. Multicultural education can promote tolerance in the campus community through diversity awareness. An effective approach to combat Islamophobia is addressed through a platform that teaches the diversity of all world religions and not just Islam alone. Believers from every faith should be part of this process. A plan that can be implemented across campus by educators in existing classes is more likely to have a widespread impact than a voluntary program. The individuals targeted...
17 Pages(4250 words)Research Paper

The monetary policies of the united states and other countries

Furthermore, since the US is essentially the largest economy globally, its monetary policies also encompass substantial financial and economic effects locally and international. Monetary policies influence the performance of countries’ economies as indicated through factors such as economic output, employment rates and inflation. In the US, the Federal Reserve controls the country’s monetary policy. The US federal government uses the country’s monetary policy to control the economy. When money supply grows too fast, inflation rate also increases and conversely, when money supply is too low; economic growth also declines rather substantially. The US Federal Reserve uses the country’s monetary policies to establish inflation target...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Can Social Bonding Theory Explain Why The US Has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Nations

In the said research, the author studied 200 employees to determine how the elements of the social bonding theory can be used to determine the likelihood of the employees committing ethical misconduct. The results from the study conducted indicated that two of the four elements, namely attachment and involvement, may be utilized to provide a better understanding of how likely it is for employees to commit ethical rule breaking. (Sims, 2002) The results obtained from the study merely highlight the importance of the elements of the social bonding theory in explaining deviant behavior and in this case, ethical misconduct of employees.
Another study conducted focused on the effect of one's religiosity on his likelihood to be lead...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Free Higher Education at the United States

...Introduction loan debt has reached 979 billion dollars and will keep increasing for the foreseeable future (Starr par 3). Still, higher Education is becoming more essential for Americans. Nowadays, it’s almost impossible to get a decent, well-paid job with just a high school degree. The price of tuition to go to college is remains very high for the middle class. And many smart and worthy high school graduates dont get to go to college. To make it worse, interest rates are getting higher. With the endless rise of student loan debts, the lending companies are exploiting families who are in need. The United States government has to step up and take control of Higher education. A lot of countries have free higher education. The exorbitant...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Crime Control Policies in the United States

... Europe and America may replicate agency and organizations more than profound cultural differences (Garland, 2001). The most significant contribution of Policy Transfer is to bring a rigorous model of policy transfer from the political science literature to bear on the issue of crime control policy. Conclusion In conclusion, the American criminal justice system along with its relevant crime control policies is undertaken at the federal, state and local levels. In essence, the judicial system represents the epitome of the entire crime control mechanisms through the role of government and congress is noteworthy. Binding policies of crime management in the United States must be enacted by the congress. In America’s history, the congress has...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Crime Rates

...Mastery of Research Concepts al Affiliation) Section Article According to the article, crime dropped drastically in the US in the 1990s. Demographic changes, drug markets shifts, increased financial activities, improved police operations, and increased prison populaces are some of the reasons the researcher gives for the decrease in crime rate. In the past, attempts made to explain accountability among these clarifications are unpersuasive. The un-persuasiveness of the previous attempts is because some of the research does not inclusively study all the possible clarifications, some depend on highly interlinked data and others still combine effect and cause. An in-depth analysis of counties in Texas that focus on these issues indicate...
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Paper

Crime prevention and Crime Rates

...Reflection on the Activity To start up with the news story I had to choose the topic. In the beginning I planned to use obesity and its associated factors to write my news story on. But after some research I realized that a lot has already been done in this area. I changed the topic to Crime prevention and Crime Rates. I viewed many factors that people associate with crime reduction. The most common I found were: Police performance Educational policies Employment Rates Social Policy changes Immigration Policies Reduction in Drug and Alcohol Abuse Spending on Police Departments and so on. Hence, I chose crime reduction as a product of rising Workforce levels. The data on both factors was available on the same website. The data set I...
1 Pages(250 words)Coursework

Why The US Has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Nations

... best explain why the United States has a higher incidence of crime rates than other nations. Review of Related Literature Harmful consequences according to Gottfredson and Hirschi are matters of indifference to those with low self-control as they tend to be self-centered and insensitive to the needs of others. People with low self control authors Gottfredson and Hirschi exhibit an “impulsive, insensitive, physical, risk-taking, short-sighted, and non-verbal” which are compatible with the attributes of criminal behavior–that is, “short-lived, immediately gratifying, easy, simple, and exciting”. In summary, the general theory of crime makes three claims about self-control: that it is acquired in childhood, it is not simply a synonym...
15 Pages(3750 words)Case Study

United States Foreign Policy from 1945-1991

American Presidents presiding over some key events in history, such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, The Cold War, The Vietnam War, etc., were hindered from acting as public representatives due to pressure from the military-industrial complex. John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Ronald Reagan, George Herbert Walker Bush, and George W. Bush – all of them were subject to these opposing interests. But eventually, the corporate-government nexus proved too powerful; and in this sense, American Presidents after the Second World War were largely restricted and powerless to uphold their higher personal values. Most of the strategic moves on part of the United States after the end of the Great War were directly in response to an anticipated th...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay

Stranger than Fiction: Bernard Malamud

It was the nerve raking reality of the Holocaust that moved him to question his religious and ethnic identity5. As a result, he got immensely interested in Jewish tradition and history. According to Malamud, “I was concerned with what Jews stood for, with their getting down to the bare bones of things. I was concerned with their ethnicity- how Jews felt they had to live in order to go on living.”6
Most of the works of literature drafted by Malamud exhibit a strange mix of truth and fantasy and have often been allocated to the ambit of “parables, myths, and allegories.”7 There is no denying the fact that Malamud’s stories and novels have a clear cut moral objective. In fact, Malamud happened to be...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Explaining White-Collar Crime through Sykes and Matzas Neutralization Techniques and Mertons Anomie

Modern criminology indicates that the term is of no limitation by referencing to types of crime, which could be enumerated as a crime by the time of the offense, by the type of offender, and by organizational culture (Cote 2002, p. 202). White-collar crimes are generally not associated with poverty or pathologies relating to it. The legal definition of crime is viewed as the only definition of crime, in which the behavior being examined is punishable by law (Sutherland 1949, p. 84).

Sutherland (1949, p. 84) claims that persons belonging to the upper socioeconomic class are involved in such criminal behavior, which is characterized as different from the criminal behavior in which the lower socioeconomic class engage in p...
11 Pages(2750 words)Report

Death Penalty: Does it Serve as a Deterrent to Future Crime

Animal instincts are directed towards self-preservation and it is the law of nature that a stronger and healthier individual has more chances of living than his weaker counterpart. The survival of the fittest has now been established as a ground reality according to Darwinian philosophy. If we eliminate our civilized thought process, it emerges as a stark reality that we would not desist from attacking another living person or animal when we are overcome by the basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing. In times of natural disasters like earthquakes, wars and floods, and manmade disasters like war, it is not uncommon to witness ravaged populations shedding the façade of civilization and resorting to violence in order to fu...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

The United States Supreme Court

The Court, consisting of nine lifelong justices, bears complete authority over the Federal courts but has lesser power over those of the states. It has the power of “last word” on decisions made by these Federal courts and makes the rules that these courts have to follow in their procedures (Wagman, 1993). In addition, all Federal courts must abide by the decisions laid down by the Supreme Court, as well as the United States Constitution. With respect to state courts, the interpretations and decisions that the Supreme Court makes apply, but the Court is limited to interpreting and changing Federal laws, not state laws. Thus, the Supreme Court cannot change conditions of state constitutions or interpret laws made by ind...
10 Pages(2500 words)Coursework

The Globalization Policies in Different Countries

Most of the countries are still confused about the extent up to which foreign participation can be allowed. Everybody has the opinion that international trade can help the development of the economy and infrastructure in a country. Critiques of foreign participation argue that the big foreign retailers will exploit the wealth of a country and the small scale industries of a country will be destroyed by allowing the entry of foreign business tycoons and MNC’s. It is interesting to analyze the pros and cons of international trade.
From the above light green curve, it is clear that international trade has increased gradually from 1994 till 1997. In 1998 through international trade in this region had decreased a bit, it aga...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

Theres No Other Store like David Jones

Established back in 1838, David Jones offers the public with a wide range of services including bridal registry, florist, interior decorator, beauty treatment like spa, and online wine club (David Jones, 2009a). With the use of printed catalogs and store expansion, David Jones is also selling branded goods like Bulgari, Fendi, Zegna, and Ferragamo (David Jones, 2009b). Aside from selling toys, books, stationery, electronic goods, and furniture; David Jones is also selling men’s and women’s clothing among others.

Despite the global financial crisis, David Jones remains firm in targeting the higher end market (Case Study, p. 381). In line with this, the relationship between market segmentation, market targetin...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Using Computers to Teach Mathematics is Better than Traditional Methods

... confidence, improving motivation and stimulating interest, and creating an overall good classroom environment. During the last two decades, huge advances in computer technology for information and communication purposes have impacted upon all levels of education and many courses as well. Using technology to support the teaching of Mathematics generally started later than for other subjects. The first electronic machine used to assist in calculation however was not the computer but the calculator. In schools in the US, UK and some other countries, the calculator has been used since the early 1980’s. Incidentally, before electronic calculators, there were mechanical calculators and even before that the slide rule to aid calculation. In US...
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Effects of the United States of America Troops in South Korea

Despite the few negative incidences of crime committed by the United States of America’s security troops that were deployed in the country on a peacekeeping mission.
Since the war in Korea began in the early nineteen fifties, the United States has stationed tens of thousands of soldiers, mostly the United States’ army personnel, in South Korea. Through the assistance of the South Korean troops and other neighboring governments, the American troops have been able to guard and offer maximum security to South Korean people. In line with the argument of James (2003), ‘most of the military bases in South Korea are relatively isolated’ thus the need for much attention from the troops so as to ensure maximum...
10 Pages(2500 words)Assignment

Immigration and Its Impact on the United Kingdom

For example, for farming communities, fertile and well-watered land has been a pull factor in migration. Business opportunities and political stability are also examples of pull factors.
Since the turn of the 20th century, Great Britain and Northern Ireland have experienced a great influx of foreigners migrating into the country due to pull or push factors. There have been different waves of migrations to the United Kingdom, which has had different impacts. Because of this, the United Kingdom has had to respond in several ways, which includes coming up with new acts on immigration, nationality, and providing asylum to refugees.1 However, the topic of migration to the United Kingdom has attracted different political views and...
23 Pages(5750 words)Assignment

Production of Crime Rates

In addition, the paper discusses best preventive and crime mitigating measures where major research findings assert the power of effective communication between stakeholders towards advancing a sustainable solution. Clearly, NCVS (2010) data asserts that coordination between the police, locals, and judges is paramount in ensuring criminals identification to face legal procedures. Other elements, which are also discussed, include the creation of employment prospects and provision of basic education on good societal morals. Effects of criminal activities and its economic implications are also covered.
Criminal activities are increasingly becoming prevalent in our communities with the majority being affected. Because of its wide-r...
19 Pages(4750 words)Research Paper

Why the Crime Rates in the US Cities Is Higher than in Small Towns

...Crime rates in large cities are much more than in small cities, towns or even in rural areas. This is a situation that has been pervasive for many years now. This is a paper that is trying to find out some of the cities in United States of America where crime rates are high. It is also meant to know how racial ethnicity has affected the rate of crime and why it has affected the rate of crime. The paper attempts to explain this by utilizing various victimization data, uniform crime reports, and various evidences that have been given concerning criminal behavior. This is a research that is based purely in the American states where the rate of crime has advanced over the years (Blumstein 24). There are numerous pecuniary benefits for crimes...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Can it Explain why the United States has Higher Crime Rates Than Other Countries for FREE!

Contact Us