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Cognitive Psychology - Coursework Example

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Masters show a significant ability to reconstruct chess positions more perfectly than novice players do. Therefore, this tells that expertise lie in the…
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Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology Chapter 9 Q The study by de Groot aimed at providing an understanding why chess masters play better compared to less-experienced players. Masters show a significant ability to reconstruct chess positions more perfectly than novice players do. Therefore, this tells that expertise lie in the immediate perceptual processing since like in the chess scenario it is here that the structuring of the game happens. In addition, alongside perceptual analysis as with all skills or expertise, lies an extensive cognitive apparatus accumulated over years of constant practice.
Q 2
Development enables individuals to gain greater amounts of cognitive effort to acquire domain-specific-knowledge, which happens in combination with intelligence as a process. Expertise is attributable to a meaningful organization of information and not related to possession of a high memory capacity. Development and expertise in sport or another skill are thus, an outcome of successful interaction of sociological, psychological, and biological constraints.
Q 3
Deliberate practice functions to improve performance by correcting errors and optimizing feedback. Therefore, deliberate practice comprises of training activities. Study conducted by de Groot (1965) provides evidence where individuals with higher skills in playing chess engaged in deliberate practice.
Q 4
A study by Carraher et al. (1985) provides an understanding that the transfer of skill can happen if individuals develop advanced strategies in a particular concept then they can transfer it to a given context.
Q 5
Edward Thorndike is the author of the theory of identical elements. The theory relates to determining the transfer of learning between a situation that is unfamiliar and one that is familiar by the number of elements that the two situations possess. Significance of this theory is that it provides instructional designers to design training, which leads to near transfer of skills.
Q 6
Mastery learning relates to the concept that teaching need to organize learning through ordered steps. Therefore, students must master the prerequisite steps to move to the next level. Mastery learning is an important educational strategy since it engages learners in multiple learning levels, instructional methods and cognitive thinking types.
Q 7
Intelligent tutoring system refers to a computer system that targets at providing customized and immediate feedback or instruction to learners, which need to happen without a human teacher intervening. It uses a number of computer technologies to provide effective and meaningful learning.
Chapter 10
Q 1
Inductive reasoning relates to a logical process in which there is a combination of multiple premises, all believed true most of the time to obtain a particular conclusion. For instance,;
Every eagle that I see at home has white feathers,
I see an eagle in the distance, and I am at home,
I conclude that the eagle has white feathers.
On the contrary, deductive reasoning is a reasoning type that goes from general to specific and bases on premises, which if are true then the reasoning is valid. For example,;
All mangoes are fruits,
All fruits grow on trees,
Therefore, all mangoes grow on trees.
Q 2
The two parts of a conditional logical statement are a hypothesis and a conclusion, which is an if-then statement and symbolized by P and Q. The two logical rules used for making inference states that the conditional is true unless the hypothesis leads to a false conclusion.
Q 3
Evans (1993) and Byrne (1989) demonstrated the effect of reasoning that focus on knowledge-rich conditionals. The kind of an interaction between belief and logical validity is certainly a robust occurrence on syllogistic reasoning.
Q 4
The Wason selection task refers to a logic puzzle, which involves four-card problem. A response is incorrect if it identifies a card, which does not need inversion or if it fails to identify a card that needs inversion. It is significance in logical reasoning is that it demonstrates the inconsistency of employing logical rules by individuals when the setting of the problem occurs in two different contexts but that have the same linkage between the facts.
Q 5
Permission interpretation of the conditional denotes an essential test case that concerns the logical boundary, and always receives rational treatment. It enables individuals to make permissible inferences in logical reasoning.
Q 6
Atmosphere hypothesis denotes the speculation that the errors in judging the validity of something occasionally originate from a bias that favors a rule on conclusion as valid if it has similar quantifiers. The hypothesis allows individuals to understand the categorical syllogism since the reasons for the credibility of syllogism are the repeating of some P and Q form.
Q 7
Mental model theory posits that the more models required for making deductive reasoning, the harder it is. It is significant in a deductive argument.
Q 8
Conservative focusing is one of the strategies identified by Bruner in attaining a concept. In this technique, testing of each attribute is by selecting a card, which is dissimilar from a focus card in only a single attribute. If the new card remains a positive instance, then the subjects recognize that the varied attribute does not form part of the concept. However, if the altered attribute produce a negative instance, then the attribute form part of the concept.
Q 9
Confirmation bias denotes interpreting or seeking evidence in a manner, which is partial to the existing beliefs, hypothesis, and expectations.
Q 10
Fugelsang and Dunbar (2005) discovered activations in left lateral region of the brain in participants. The left-lateralized activations reflected on inferential process of reasoning.
Chapter 11
Q 1
Gages case provided an understanding of the role of the frontal cortex, which is essential for higher order functions including language, reasoning, and social cognition. Therefore, his case demonstrated the involvement of frontal lobe in personality.
Q 2
It refers to the interpretation of the concept of probability and is an extension of propositional logic, which permits reasoning with hypotheses. Therefore, it is a point of contention between two schools of thought on probability, which explains its significance.
Q 3
Base rate neglect refers to the way in which individuals tend to ignore the background of frequencies when making inferences about probability. Conservatism is a condition of mind marked by a definite respect for the norm or by not liking a modification. Both base rate and conservatism points that errors occur in decision-making since human often make a quick judgment based on little information.
Q 4
The gambler’s fallacy denotes the belief that the likelihoods of something occurring with a fixed probability become lower or higher as the process is repetitive. Gambler’s fallacy is important in showing errors in the argument that people make.
Q 5
Framing effect connotes a phenomenon in which there is systematic alteration of the decisions that individuals make. Alterations are through the language used in formulating the options. Framing effect is significant in arriving at a decision that is common to all parties.
Q 6
The lateral habenula region of the brain is involved in the process of making decision.
Q 7
The Iowa Gambling Task is essential in evaluating emotion-based decision-making, particularly when humans face ambiguous contingencies, emotion-mediated information, and uncertain consequences.
Reference
Anderson, J. R. (2010). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications: Seventh Edition. New York: Worth Publishing. Read More
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