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Introduction to Psychology Coursework - Essay Example

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The idea that a person's personality and behaviour is determined at birth, and perhaps even before, is based upon those that adhere to a genetic/inherited view of human personalities. The selective breeding experiments famous undertaken by Mendel in plants in the early Twentieth Century were subsequently transferred to animals where learning ability, emotionality and aggression have been bred for in rats (Ebert & Hyde, 1976).
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Introduction to Psychology Coursework
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Download file to see previous pages This comment could be made by the proponents of a number of theories, but it is most applicable to Freudian Instinct Theory. Freud sated that all animals, including human beings, are born with potent aggressive instincts. These instincts create a drive to commit aggressive acts that must be fulfilled in one way or another.
This instinct, which Freud called the id can be alleviated to a certain extent through the superego, which represents that part of the human bring that is developed through childhood and comes to fruition in adulthood. Society places controls on people's aggressive instincts, and the superego recognizes this and tames the desires of the id in order to preserve the person's freedom. One way that society allows for this instinct to be released, and thus not come to full fruition is the method of catharsis, in which nonviolent release of aggressive energy is allowed (Lahey, 2002).
This might be an adapted social learning theorist, perhaps even Albert Bandura himself. Bandura states that while people are indeed effected by their social environment, they are also actively involved in determining their own actions. A degree of self-determination vis--vis the outside environment occurs and the person's behavior effects the social environment (Bandura, 1989).
In this case the "social environment" of the student would be his parents, but the student would also have a degree of self-agency that would make them at least partially responsible for their actions. This view of the student might also fit in with various stage theorists as each of them sees a certain point at which a person gains full adult autonomy, which includes the development of a moral compass and sense of ethical standards. Thus Piaget identified the age of eleven onwards as that at which the child gains full adult logic, the so-called "operational stage".
By contrast, Kohlberg would identify the time at which moral maturity is gained later. According to him a child's moral view is based upon what others think of what he is doing, and the laws/conventions that exist at a conventional level. Within this context, cheating may actually fit in within the imperative to succeed that is being reinforced within the child. It is only when the child gains independence that the "principled level" arises.
4) There aren't any values inherent in human nature. Values are acquired in the same way as we learn to say "please" and "thank you".
This type of statement could come from a proponent of social learning theory. Thus the way that people act, think and feel, and thus those factors which go in to making their "values" are learned from other people within ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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