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Body language - Research Paper Example

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LEARNING/TEACHING THEORIES Name of and Number of of Professor Date Introduction Behaviorism is a type of teaching/learning method, which has shown so much success in the fields where there is correct response, which is usually easily memorized…
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Download file to see previous pages However, behaviorists such as B.F Skinner and J. B Watson disagreed with Wundt on the basis that his methodology was not quantifiable and lacked objectives. For this reason, the two psychologists focused on justifiable, subjective, and quantifiable experiences as the basis of behaviorism form of learning and teaching. B.F Skinner argued specifically that it is not easy to quantify the activities of the mind and therefore only observable indicators such as stimulus and responses should be used as a basis for behaviorism (Skinner, 1969). Skinner further suggested that facts about mental states could be reduced especially with regard to behavioral dispositions. Behaviorism school of thought believes that behaviors can be described in a scientific manner without referring to either internal psychological events or hypothetical dispositions such as beliefs. Ivan Pavlov played a major role of distinguishing behaviorism from psychoanalytic and Gestalt movement although he did not agree with the behaviorists. Pavlov’s research on classical condition influenced Skinner, which led him to conduct several behaviorism researches on operant conditioning (Malott, 2008). Literature Review Behaviorism View of Learning In a study conducted by (Canterbury Christ Church University College, 2004) in London, the researchers reported that tutors enhanced initial teacher education influenced the learner’s behavior. Their research was based on Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory of 1989. Learners from age 5-16 were included and the study that was spread across primary and secondary schools of which 65% were American students. Their study concluded that learners achievement of goals can explain a learners motivation and discipline and this was with regard to the achievement goal theory by (Ames C, 1992). In another study conducted by (Anderman EM & Maehr ML, 1994) the psychologists through their series of research came up with a conclusion that motivation and discipline in terms of self-regulation are directly correlated hence backed a similar research conducted by (Giallo R, 2003). Through a series of research conducted, it was proved that learning to learn behaviors were identifiable and teachable and this included target setting and achievement of mean grades and scores. In a longitudinal study involving children’s study for math and reading, it was noted that motivation for learning math is directly and uniquely predicted by previous math achievement. The research further suggests that children aged between 5-7 years don’t differentiate subject areas while children between age 8-11 have clear conscious towards their subjects and will tend to place their motivational value in the subjects mostly succeeded (Guay, 2010). Similar reports were given with researchers from Canterbury Church who found out that curriculum that focuses on performance reduces the learner’s motivation than a pedagogy and curriculum that seeks to secure mastering of content. For this reason, motivation is improved if positive outcomes can be conclusively meaningful, feasible and easily accessible to students. Vygosty in his theory postulates that the zone of proximal development involves two stages (Daniels, 2002). The first stage is where the child is able to conduct some personal errands without any help. In the second level, Vygosty insist that there is a potential of development for a child if other ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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