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Behaviorism - Essay Example

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Behaviorism Research Paper Briarcliff College Behaviorism J. B. Watson laid the foundation of Behaviorism OR Behavioral Psychology, with the publication of his paper ‘Psychology as the Behaviorists view it’ in 1913; catering the belief that all behaviors are attributes that are measureable, trainable and changeable (Cherry, 2012)…
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Download file to see previous pages A behaviorist sees no difference between two mental or cognitive states until they have a marked and demonstrable behavioral difference associated with each state of mind; behavioral psychologists look for a behavioral explanation and evidence for hypothesis (Graham, 2000). Behaviorism regards that the learner has a passive role and only responds to the stimuli that are provided from the environment (Learning-theories, 2013). Behavioral psychology being based in learning theory suggests that all behaviors are based in conditioning which occurs when behavior interacts with the environment (Cherry, 2012). Main Premise The main premise of the behavioral psychology encircles these concepts: Naturalistic and objective (Hauser, 2005), approach of behaviorism; man is deprived of any mind or soul and only the brain has the capacity of response towards external stimuli (DeMar, 1989). Disregard for introspection to gather scientific data (Hauser, 2005), behavior results from conditioning. Manipulative tendency of behaviorism renders it the ability to not only predict but also control behavior (DeMar, 1989). Irresponsibility for personal actions, as man only responds to external stimuli and thus behavior is inevitable result of operating in the environment (DeMar, 1989). Disregard for the inner computational or cognitive processes playing a part between the environmental stimuli and the resulting behavior (Hauser, 2005). Types of Behaviorism Behaviorism has three types: methodological, psychological, and analytical or logical behaviorism. Methodological behaviorism implies that organism behavior should be the apex of psychological study and not the internal process of the physiological functions and how they mediate between environment and behavior (Graham, 2010). Physiological behaviorism is centered at describing the human behavior with regards to the external stimuli and their responses, learning and reinforcement (Graham, 2010). Analytical behaviorism has its roots in philosophy and states that when cognitions and mental states are associated with behavior it gives rise to the notion of a dispositional behavior, becoming clear from how a person might behave in one situation as opposed to another (Graham, 2010). Historical Background and Contributions to Behavioral Psychology John Watson being a doctoral student was interested in Ivan Pavlov’s conditioned responses and applied the stimulus-response approach to behavioral study (pbs, 2013). Between the years 1908 – 1912 he started voicing his ideas and had already started using the term ‘behaviorist’ by 1912; with the publication of ‘Psychology as the behaviorists view it’ in 1913 he formally established behaviorism as a school of psychology (pbs, 2013). Behaviorism gained approval of psychologists and general public and reached apex during 1920-1960, and Watson’s behaviorism has been changed over the years with psychologists like B. F. Skinner working for it. John B. Watson and Behaviorism According to Watson, behaviorism is purely experimental, aiming to predict and control animal behavior and does not account for introspection ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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