Early and Late Adolescence - Essay Example

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Running head: EARLY AND LATE ADOLESCENCE Changes observed during Early and Late Adolescence Customer’s Name Institution Name Changes observed during Early and Late Adolescence The developmental transition of a child after the age of 11 could be divided into two stages…
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Running head: EARLY AND LATE ADOLESCENCE Changes observed during Early and Late Adolescence s Changes observed duringEarly and Late Adolescence The developmental transition of a child after the age of 11 could be divided into two stages. The two stages are 'The Early Adolescence', that transforms a kid into youth (from 12 to 18, years), and the 'Late Adolescence', which turns the youth into an adult (18 to 24 years) (Newman & Newman, 2011).  The early adolescence stage starts with the initiation of puberty. During this stage, a combination of cognitive, social and physical changes of critical nature take place, and young people feel increasingly vulnerable (Vernon, 2002). Early adolescence is a conflicting period between group identity and alienation. That is because the rate of bodily changes affects a person’s self-concept, adolescents want to be like everyone else to gain communal acceptance, and are anxious about appearing awkward or different at the same time. Males and females alike may behave clumsily, and/or uncoordinated because of their physical, social, and cognitive transition. Identity formation during early adolescence is closely related to the physical changes that early adolescents’ experience. During this time, physical changes appear more rapidly, whereas, the rate of maturity varies tremendously across genders. The various parts, of the body, gradually come into proportion. For example, the trunk broadens and lengthens, and thus the limbs no longer seem too long. Weight gets distributed into the other areas, of the body, where previously there was little or no fat. This is where genetics, hereditary and cultural features intrude and influence a kid’s health, like they could turn obese or slimmer and athletic. Similarly, height also gets affected and increases gradually. An average girl reaches her mature height between ages of 17 or 18, and the average boy a year or so later. Hormonal changes cause the spurts and development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics associated with puberty. Other prominent features of physical development include reproductive system’s maturation, and increased muscle strength. Psychologically, “this period is characterized by increased self-consciousness, introspection, inner conflicts, stress, uncertainty and disorientation” (Brinthaupt & Lipka, 2002). One of the most important developing features during this period is the increasing importance of friendships and peer relationships. Social comparisons are applied to a greater number of early adolescence social activities, and peer relationships begin to have both positive and pessimistic effects. The feeling of being accepted by his or her peers nurtures the emotion of high self-esteem, on the other hand, negative peer relations or attitudes could become a source of teasing and ridicule for kids. Friendships, especially conflicts within friendships, play an influential role in the examination and evaluation of the early adolescent. It is a significant time during the development and revision of self-views, and peer-friendships most likely influence self-esteem and self-definitions. Another important feature, in this stage, is a child’s tendency of overcoming childish attitudes, and behavioral patterns as he/she prepares for adulthood. Adolescents tend to become unrealistic and see themselves and other as they would like them to be rather than as they are (Hurlock, 2001). These non real aspirations are very much responsible for the heightened emotionality characteristic of early adolescence (Hurlock, 2001).  In a cultural context, a crowd plays an important channeling role by providing interactions with the opposite sex, and setting rules for approval or disapproval of particular choices. Kids display differentiated skills and competencies during this time, which differ from both cross and within countries between boys and girls. Although children show same-gender preferences across cultures, contextual factors also affect this pattern. Like any other stage of transition, in early adolescence an individual’s status is vague, and there is confusion over the roles that individual is expected to play. Adolescents are concerned about achieving their independence, and exploring various roles and responsibilities. They learn a great deal about themselves, their social worth/identity, and the broader cultural world they live in through social interactions, experiences and peer-relations (Mandleco, 2004). Career choice and development in later adolescence: Career development is a process through which individuals regulate and structure their working lives, and it unfolds across a large portion of the life span (Newman & Newman, 2011). It includes several sub-processes that are often conceptualized to be distinct and progressive, but actually are overlapping and discontinuous. These sub-processes include gaining an understanding of oneself and the world of work, exploring career options, making career-related decisions, implementing decisions, and evaluating those decisions. This process of making career choice develop usually during late adolescence, but it may get started during early adolescence stage as well depending upon private preferences or requirements (Newman & Newman, 2011). In making career choices and its further development, an individual’s sense of personal competence is the central component. Competency beliefs, allow individuals, to discriminate, between careers for which they can assume likelihood of success, and for careers, they feel un-suited. Successes and failures during the academic life of early adolescence are considered an indication of personal abilities and skills. For instance, self-efficacy in the mathematics course predicts their self-efficacy for career in mathematics. The structural forces, behind the society; affect career development through individual’s perception of occupational barriers and support system. Low representation of women or minorities in some careers is an example of such potential barriers. Discrimination during academic years, early work setting, or during other, experiences, as well, contribute to adolescent’s contribution to occupational barriers. These perceived barriers are also influenced by compromise and circumscription, which basically emerge through gender segregation in job-related choices, socialization process, and socio-economic status. Several theories attend to race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) as contextual or structural influences in the lives of adolescents, these variables rather add up to the label of individual differences in the career development stage. Although career interests during adolescence tend to follow along stereotypical gender lines, gender effects could be moderated by parental SES, educational aspirations, and career certainty. An integral issue through the career development of males and females is that young women are more likely to value family over work than are adolescent men. Valuing other aspects of one’s life more than work may result in less devotion towards career development. Social contexts may also interact with gender to influence different career-related outcomes. For example, the specific types of parental support that is most strongly related to vocational self-efficacies differ for male and female adolescents. Early work experiences contribute to the professional identity, and career development of adolescents and young adults. Lastly, learning more about oneself and the world of work facilitates the transition from school to work, and helps in planning one’s occupational future (Newman & Newman, 2011). References Brinthaupt, T. M., & Lipka, R. P. (2002). Understanding early adolescent self and identity: Applications and interventions. SUNY Press. Hurlock, E. B. (2001). Developmental psychology. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Mandleco, B. H. (2004). Growth and development handbook: Newborn through adolescence. Cengage Learning. Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2011). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning. Vernon, A. (2002). What works when with children and adolescents: A handbook of individual counseling techniques. Research Press. Read More
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