According to Carol K.Sigelman “Watson rejected psychoanalytic theory and devoted a good deal of effort trying to explain Freud’s fascinating discoveries about humans in terms of basic learning principles."…
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Considered as the most prominent psychologists of the twentieth century and a prominent lecturer at John Hopkins University, Watson’s work is generally used as a basic context in majority of the educational and introductory psychology books. In spite of that, his educational career was short, which lasted for just fourteen years, but his approach has been fiercely discussed for almost a century. Watson assisted to describe the theory of behaviour, the stress on operant conditioning by Skinner, and highlighted the significance of understanding, learning and development of humans due to the influence of the environmental surroundings. According to Glassman “ in 1913, Watson began publishing the first of a series of publications which outlined his behaviourist approach, which quickly gained him both fame and notoriety-his statement about shaping healthy infant in any way desired is characteristic of his assertive style.” The theory that every behavior is attained due to training and conditioning is known as Behaviorism which is a concept of learning. Conditioning or training happens due to the contact with the surroundings. The theory of behaviorism states that, behavior should be considered in a methodical and apparent way with no thought of the inner state of mind. According to Diane H. Tracey “two underlying assumptions are present in all theoretical versions of behaviorism. The first is the belief that behavior is the result of an organism’s or person’s response to stimuli. The second is the belief that external stimuli can be manipulated to strengthen or reduce an organism’s or an individual’s behavior.” The two main forms of conditioning are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning demonstrates Behaviorism for the reason that it centers on apparent alterations in behavior and reaction to incentive or stimuli as representative of learning. Pavlov was the creator of classical conditioning as he observed that his dogs started to salivate as soon as they saw their bowls in which they were fed, despite the fact they were empty. He assumed that the dogs salivated as they had formed a connection between the existence of their bowls with the occurrence of their dinner. That means, the dog had “learned through association to connect their food bowls with their, dinners. Eventually Pavlov was able to produce salivation in his dogs by sampling ringing a bell” (Diana H. Tracey) This experiment proved that a response can be brought with the right conditioning and training. It is a practice applied in behavioral training which involves the pairing of stimulus that takes place naturally with a reaction. After that, the former impartial stimulus is associated with the stimulus that occurs naturally. Finally, the former impartial stimulus leads to provoke the reaction devoid of the existence of the stimulus which occurs naturally. According to E. Bruce Goldstein “psychology as the behaviorist sees it is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness… what we need to do is to start working upon psychology making behavior, not consciousness, the objective point of our attack. (Watson)” Watson objective has been to eradicate the study of mind in psychology and to substitute it with the examination of the behavior that
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Critical theoretical examination of the society and culture remains an important aspect especially in the current international affairs and politics. Therefore, the term critical theory has been widely applied in studying international politics. According to Philips (2000), critical theory is usually associated with the Frankfurt school from where works of influential theorists including Karl Marx and Jurgen Habermas continue making an important contribution to the study of critical theory in relation to international politics.
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