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Minds, Brains and Programs - Essay Example

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Title Name University Turning test refers to the question whether machines can think. Additionally, this test also refers some kinds of behavioral tests for the presence of intelligence, thought, or mind. Searle (1980) defines the basic purpose of the Turing test is to construct a clear fundamental rules for determining the status of subjects of any species…
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Download file to see previous pages Additionally, this test takes into account the presence and use of thought, mind or intelligence factors in machines and if machines are found with such capabilities that are similar to human mind and its unique functionalities, this presumes that the passing of such test would enable its relevancy to the above mentioned claim. However, proving such presumption cannot be taken for granted, its comparative assessment and resemblance with the human mind, thoughts or intelligence must be provided. Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be identified with strong and weak connotations. The weak AI is defined as a principal value of the computer in studying mind giving a very powerful tool. Additionally, with the use of weak AI, developing and testing of hypothesis can be carried out in a very precise and rigorous manner. On the other hand, according to the strong AI, the computer cannot be identified as a mere tool while studying mind; instead, it would not be incorrect to say that the appropriately programmed computer really is a mind in the sense that computers allocated with the right kind of programs can be recognized as having their own mind along with a capacity to understand things. In addition, due to the use of cognitive states in the programmed computers, the programs do not remain to be tools enabling to carry out testing of psychological descriptions; rather, the installed programs themselves are the descriptions or explanations. In order to demonstrate this fact, Searle (1980) provides a descriptive but detailed situation that took place in the Chinese room. First, he is provided with first batch of Chinese writing in the room. In the second batch, he is given the Chinese piece of writing along with the set of rules, which are written in the English language. With the use of rules, he is enabled to correlate the Chinese symbols with one set of symbols with another set of symbols. In the third batch, he is asked to correlate elements of the third batch with the symbols of the first two batches. Additionally, the set of rules requires him to construct batches in such a way that provide them some sort of shapes, which are provided in the third batch. Subsequently, the people outside the room define the first batch “a script”, second batch “a story” and third batch “questions.” In addition, the symbols which he gives them back in response to the third batch are identified as “answers to the questions” and the set of rules, which are given in English, are identified as “the program.” In order to further complicate this story, the people outside the room give him stories, questions and English in English and he becomes so good at writing the programs that for the outsiders it becomes very difficult to make distinction between my programs and the programs made by the native Chinese. As a result, he concludes while answering and developing programs from the Chinese symbols and elements that he has behaved like a computer by performing computational operations on formally specified elements. The Chinese room does observe some applications of the Turing test. For example, some symbols in the shape of Chinese languages are used along with a menu of rules that are needed to be followed. In the second batch of Chinese writing, a set of rules are provided for the purpose of correlating with the Chinese symbols. Additionally, the rules are provided ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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