The causes of birth order and family size on IQ and personality Name of the customer Name of the Institution December 23, 2012 The causes of birth order and family size on IQ and personality Introduction The relationships among birth order, family size, Intelligence Quotient and personality have attracted the attention of researchers, scholars and psychologists for decades…
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Similarly, the relationship between personality and birth order has assumed new dimensions with Alfred Adler’s postulation that each birth position has its own personality traits. In the same way, previous literature has clearly shown the potential power of family size to influence the personality as well as the IQ of children. This paper seeks to unearth the relationship between birth order and IQ, birth order and personality, family size and IQ, and family size and personality; in doing so the paper also deals with the major counter arguments for each of these relationships. Relationship between IQ and birth order Black, Devereux and Salvanes (2011) conducted some remarkable studies on the effects of birth order on IQ; they identified a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ as earlier born children develop more of IQs than the younger ones. However, the authors identified that no genetic component could be associated with birth order. The quality of pre-natal care and the behavioral pattern of the mothers can considerably get changed with the passage of time. There are a number of theories and models that support the relationship between IQ and birth order. For instance, the resource dilution model holds that the later born children may lack those parental resources offered to the firstborns. It has been pointed out that “firstborns may benefit from having the exclusive attention of their parents, while later borns have to share time with their earlier-born siblings” (Black, Devereux and Salvanes, 2011, p. 114). The Resource Dilution Model proposed by Blake postulates that parental resources are quite finite and parents with more than one child have to divide these resources among their children (Esping, 2003). On the other hand, the first born unlike the late born receives the complete attention of the mother which has a positive impact on the cognitive development of children. The resource dilution model best explains why firstborns form a large majority of the college population of the nation. In the same way, the Confluence Model proposed by R.B. Zajonc & Markus also highlights the firstborn IQ advantage as they receive the maximum share of parental attention and experience better intellectual environment at home (Esping, 2003). The model also holds that firstborns from smaller families are better equipped than those from larger families to develop higher IQ scores. In the same way, the theory of standard diminishing utility also echoes the diminishing resources and care shown by mothers towards younger childen. For Kristensen and Bjerkedal (2007, p. 1717), prenatal or gestational factors have the potential to affect the fetal brain. This has also been pointed out by Spiker et al (2001, p. 456) that “maternal antibodies are sensitized to fetal brain tissue and affect the neuronal substrate of cognitive abilities in the secondborn or laterborn sibs” (Spiker et al., 2001, p. 456). Similarly, a study on nonverbal IQ scores conducted by Spiker et al. (2001, p. 449) among a sample of 144 autism multiplex families clearly demonstrated that “nonverbal IQ scores were significantly lower in secondborn compared with firstborn siblings with autism.”
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Personality Disorders. Symptoms, Causes, Treatment.
A very complex array of symptoms is manifested by those who are suffering from personality disorders. Generally they fall under four categories;
Cognition – people suffering from personality disorders have the tendency to perceive common situations of their surrounding in a way which is beyond ordinary.
It is the institution that provides the individuals with food, shelter, comforts and love, and offers unabated and unflinching moral and financial support to the members belonging to it. Additionally, family is also the first center that provides basic education, training, mannerism and ways to enter into interaction and communication with others.
According to (CBC News) “Birth order typically creates some form of sibling rivalry, but a new study suggests it also has an impact on personality and intelligence”. It has been analyzed by group experts that first born children acquired much better marks than younger siblings.
According to research carried out by many psychologists, there is a connection between birth order and various personality traits developed later in life by different people. This research however has received many controversies from other scholars. As the scholars came up with various findings, none of the theories had a general acceptance since each of them had its own limitations.
Assuming that the IQ test has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, 14 students fell one standard deviation below the test mean, and 6 students fell two standard deviations below the test mean.
The first assumption from the test results is that the test was academic,
A. Studies have revealed that the order of one’s birth largely affects his/her personality. The ones who are born first are generally less outgoing than the middle and the last born children in a family. During the time when
The author provides Adlerian’s theory on psychological effects on a child with the presence of siblings. According to Adlerian, motor development of a child is affected by the environment he is born in and his position in the family. He emphasized on the presence of role model to introduce a child to subtle and meticulous movements.
On average, a person’s IQ is usually determined to be 100. Individuals with a score above 100 are considered exceptionally smart. People who score high during IQ tests are expected to perform better in many
Mayr, Gerald, And Thierry Smith. "Phylogenetic Affinities And Taxonomy Of The Oligocene Diomedeoididae, And The Basal Divergences Amongst Extant Procellariiform Birds." Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society 166.4 (2012): 854-875. Academic Search Premier. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.
Compared to Piaget’s stages child development concept, the Hood & Willatts experiment as well as the Moore et al. experiment correctly discovered that Bower’s object permanence concept is more convincing than Piaget’s object permanence concept.
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
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