Psychological problems at present are more than that in the past. It will become even more in future because of the rapid changes in the life styles, life philosophies and attitudes of people. Counselling helps people to get rid of their mental tensions or emotional problems up to certain extent…
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Medicines alone cannot solve many of the mental problems. A good word is hundred times more effective than a medicine for people with psychological problems. As in the case of many other segments in human life, counselling principles are also undergoing tremendous changes. The needs of the present generation are extremely different from the needs of the past generation and therefore counsellors should find new ways to cater the needs of the current and future generation. This paper analyses the history and trends in counselling. History & Trends in Counselling The world is undergoing tremendous changes at present because of the rapid progresses in science and technology. Yesterday’s precious things are becoming waste today whereas today’s precious things may become waste tomorrow. For example, when it was invented radio brought tremendous changes in the world in the past. Today, television, mobile phones and internet established supremacy over radio. The popular laptops and cell phones are currently giving way for tablet PC’s. In short, changes are taking place in every segment of human life at present. Human forced to fine tune his life philosophies and attitudes in conjunction with the changes happened in technology and science. Yesterday’s life principles are not applicable today and it is difficult to predict what is going to happen in future. For example, same sex marriages or the concepts of staying together were not in the distant dreams of the past generation. However, such things are common at present in many countries. In order to keep in pace with these changes, many of the sociological and psychological principles were also changed in the past. Counselling is one area in which tremendous changes were observed in the past. New life styles brought new challenges to the current counsellors. It is difficult for the counsellors to analyse a topic with the help of single dimension. For example, counsellors earlier considered homosexuality as a behavioural problem whereas at present they have realised that it is unwise to categorize it as a behavioural problem alone. Homosexuality has root causes in the changing life styles of the people. Without an analysis of the changing life styles, it is difficult for the counsellors to perform their duties well. In short, counselling in the past, present and future may not be the same. History of Counselling “Plato said, "The greatest mistake in the treatment of disease is that there are physicians for the body and physicians for the soul, but the two cannot be separated." We must address cognitive, behavioral, affective and spiritual issues”(Powel, 2005, p.2). In other words, the importance of counseling was better known even to ancient philosophers like Plato. Man is a social animal and he requires advises and guidance from his fellow humans in order to lead a meaningful life. No human is mature at the time of his birth. He acquires maturity through the interactions with his surrounding and environment. “The first known school guidance program in the United States dates to 1889, when a Detroit school principal, Jesse B. Davis, introduced a guidance curriculum that was delivered in each English class in his school” (Bauman et al, 2003, p.1). Teenagers are vulnerable to developmental problems. Sex hormones are hyper active during teenage period and it is difficult for the teenagers to take sound decisions during this period. The above awareness forced academic scholars to think in terms of implementing guidance programs in school compounds. The father of professional counseling is believed to be Frank Parsons who founded education to work center in Boston in 1906 (History of Counseling profession, n.d, p.2).
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