Nationalism has been a contentious issue over time as analysts cannot agree on its definition and its role in society. Most analysts, however, contend that nationalism is a specifically modern phenomenon, which became salient in the eighteenth1 or nineteenth century.2 Ernest Gellner3 was able to convincingly demonstrate that nationalism marked a profound break in human history instead of corresponding to a universal and ancient human need…
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This can only be successful if conducted in the local vernacular of the country. This thus raised a need for cultural homogenisation and its offshoot- the political doctrine of nationalism, 'which holds that the political and the national unit should be congruent'.4 Nationalism can be characterised as 'the organisation of human groups into large, centrally educated, culturally homogenous units'.5 Gellner put it thus: modernisation brings about nationalism and nationalism establishes nations, and not vice versa.
Nationalism may manifest itself as part of state ideology or as a non-state movement and may be expressed along civic, ethnic, cultural, religious or ideological lines. These self-definitions of the nation have been used to classify types of nationalism. These categories are not mutually exclusive and many nationalist movements combine some or all of these elements to varying degrees. Nationalist movements have also beeen classified by other criteria, such as scale and location.
With all the disagreements about the true nature of nationalism, most analysts today view it as a hindrance to the development of a liberal democracy.6 Some like Beiner, Habermas and Hobsbawm say that this hindrance has to be superseded altogether; others like Dahrendorf, Kymlicka and Tamir see how democracy and nationalism can be reconciled.
Civic and Ethnic Nationalism
The liberal defenders of nationalism owe mostly, the original Enlightenment ideal of the nation as an agency of democratic power that was able to challenge the old suppressive order of the 'ancien rgime' (Rousseau). This made French and American nationalisms to be traditionally regarded as the epitome of civic nationalism. They were based on the political ideas of revolutionaries who fought for the 'sovereignty of the people'. The membership of the community was thus defined primarily in political terms; civic virtues were more important for the new republic than ethnicity, common culture, or even common language. This voluntaristic notion of national identity is usually contrasted with ethnic nationalism, which is exclusionary, since the belonging to a nation is in this case defined by birth, blood and ethnicity. While the former conception of a nation is ideally conceived of as a voluntary association, the latter is seen as a community of fate.7 Ethnic nationalism emerged in the late nineteenth century and is said to be pertinent to the people of Central and Eastern Europe
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(“Nationalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved de https://studentshare.org/politics/1522368-nationalism
(Nationalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
“Nationalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/politics/1522368-nationalism.
During periods of conflict, many government leaders rely on how citizens feel about their country to recruit soldiers as well as to gain support for the continuation of a fighting strength. When governments fall out of favor with the nation's people, many issues can arise which can lead to increased discord and an overall lack of support.
These results further send the message that the Japanese people are not satisfied with the way events are unfolding for them. Their dissatisfaction may have its origin in various areas for example; some do not trust their government. They feel that the government has failed to offer the best environment for unleashing their full potential.
However, as Hitti (1943) writes in his analysis of the Islamic conquest, this particular event is not simply militarily or historically significant but, above all, is culturally and politically important. The Arab conquest of the North African and the Levantine countries was as much a cultural conquest as it was military one.
These 'enemies' could be other animals in smaller societies, other nations or people in larger context and even nature when had a panoramic view. While fear could have been the major inspiration for coming together in the earlier days, growth of a country and living against other men met the spirit of nationalism had to exist (Levy, 2000).
People who are grouped together with the same background, even the same race, can have a purpose larger than themselves. A nation, in his opinion, is not defined by the boundaries on a map, but by the unity and resilience of a
nation, an aspiration for its wealth, welfare, and the upholding of a strong respect and regard for the policies, laws or principles of that country. In a deeper sense, nationalism also means the maintaining and expounding of national culture and ideals among a specified group
Nationalism of different nations, institute among the subjects that emerge prominently in the discussions of the countries’ histories with France not being an exception. The term which appears modern, emerged