The European Union (EU) is essentially a political unit wrapping a bulky fraction of the continent of Europe. It was set up upon several treaties and has duly grown to the height that has carried it from an initial six member states to current twenty seven; a greater part of nations in Europe…
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However, the idea of Europe cannot be entirely appreciatedwithout having the mentality of historical evolution of the Europe continent prior tothe periods of World War II and by extension the recent integration process that has been realized in the United States of Europe.
By definition, stagnation in economic sense implies that there is a noticeable cease in motion, progress or generally activity. The progress as well as stagnation has been both customary and yet understandable stages in the expansion of the European Union and its antecedent, the European Communities (EC). European integration has had a kind of stop-and-go or an oscillating developmental pattern since the inception of the idea after the First World War (Louis Meuleman 2008; p. 401). Several factors have worked in a bid to understanding and shaping the composition and the future of the Union, for example issues like the adoption of a Constitution for the EU; the extension of EU membership to slot in ten new Member States; the ballot vote to the European Parliament; as well as the recommendation of a novel European Commission.
In the 70s there was huge realization of lack of advancing the idea of EU among the member states. Citizens of independent member states were duly considered the then obstacles to the strong establishment and expansion of the EU. For instance, citizens of nations like the Netherlands and France at one time are in record having voted for their countries to pull out of the EU, leaving the reform process. In this regard at least according to Cini, (2007, 442);
Citizens continue to disengage from the EU institutions, including what is ostensibly 'their' Parliament; the richer member states are seeking to reduce their contribution to the EU budget rather than increasing it to allow equitable treatment of the then new entrants in cohesion and agricultural aid.
In fact the EU integration crisis in 70s Cini, (2007, 442) continue to declare, precipitated a situation dabbed Eurosclerosis. Eurosclerosis she explains further that it is the time period when the political integration in Europe mired. Fundamentally, it was the outcome of authority decisions in member states and by extension acute prevailing lack of public concern in regarding the condition of the European integration. There was also member state party politics as well as ethnicity issues (Bache, Ian & Stephen George 2006; 273). The principal issue here was how member states made policy decisions to shape their preferences regarding the EU (Folke, C., T. Hahn, P. Olsson, & J. Norberg, 2005; 361). The independent member states held varied political culture as well as big picture opinions of their national interest and preferences. These factors are by extension shaped by complicated bundles of issue-specific factors which further depends on negotiations between the EU27 members and the apparent constantly shifting patterns of domestic politics within each member states. A pretty good example, according to Cini (2007, p. 450) is the French 'Non' to the Constitutional Treaty motivated by the then president. The French resisted the recommended liberalization of services in the Single Market which has been a prime EU policy, commonly called Bolkestein Directive. There is therefore divergent views on
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(“European Union Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words”, n.d.)
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(European Union Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“European Union Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/politics/1511879-european-union.
Thus, during the last eight years, the European Union has expanded from 15 to 27 states. Given that the process of expansion is properly implemented, it promotes the transformation of many European countries into democratic and prosperous states. However, many people still consider the process of EU further enlargement to be harmful for European welfare.
This is different from the concept of indirect effect which refers to the reliance on EU sources of law in the interpretation of national laws.2 Direct effect is also different from direct applicability as the latter refers to sources of international law that are directly applicable without the necessity of implementation into national law.3 Horizontal direct effect, or the “incidental effect” occurs when EU law has direct effect between private parties within the EU.4 The direct effect of EU primary law such as non-discrimination within the original treaty will have direct effect between private parties.5 Direct effect is referred to as the principle of effete utile and is designed to
United Kingdom is European states, other than this, the economies in European States are closely interlinked thus the legal matters arising are heavily intertwined and largely interlinked. Further, the legal issues involving these states are largely influenced by the EU Treaties and the Conventional Human Rights of Europe1.
Sionaidh Douglas-Scott also said that "the ... concept of federalism does not feel quite right as an explanation of the EU which. ... is too sui generis, too complex, too multidimensional to fit into any such categorization".
In the following essay, we will try to discuss and analyze these statements with reference to Treaties, case law of the European Court of Justice and contemporary political and academic opinion, in order to understand how the European Union is organized.
Chabot stated that this revolution involves the solidification of a European market of goods and services, major structural changes in countries plagued by fiscal negligence, and the reorganization of monetary policy in some of the world’s most advanced industrialized economies. The “European Single Market” is “the world’s largest domestic market”.
he Common Agricultural Policy, Competition Policy, Science and Technology Policy, Regional Policy and Social Policy and their resultant outcomes are described briefly in the following sections.
The CAP of the European Union has undergone several significant reforms since the
The European Union has various activities including the most important of all – a common single market. This market consists of a common agricultural policy, common fisheries policy, customs union and single currency adopted by twelve of the twenty-five member states.
In simpler language, the Union turned to be an integration of different constituent economic setups resultantly turning out to be a great economic power. The economic strength of the whole setup grew in multitudes
Globally, countries and continents are engaging in bilateral or multi-lateral trade partnerships for the benefit of its trading partners. The need for the formation of economic and trade unions is prompted by the fact that these countries have different forms of economic and resource endowments thereby creating relative and comparative trade advantages.