Electromagnetism Spectrum. Electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is one of the key phenomena of electromagnetism, which behaves as photon particles or propagating waves travelling through space loaded with radiant energy (Abdo 2007). …
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As a wave, EMR can characteristically be absorbed or emitted by charged particles. They also have the magnetic field, as well as electric component that oscillates perpendicularly and in fixed relationship with each other and perpendicular to the direction of the wave energy propagation. Electromagnetic waves are characterized by wavelength and frequency of their waves. In order of decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency, electromagnetic spectrum consists if the radio waves, the microwaves, the infrared radiation (IR) the visible light (UV), the ultraviolet radiation, the X-rays and finally the Gamma rays. In this spectrum, higher frequency and lower wavelength corresponds to proportionately more energy possessed by each photon. For example in this case, gamma rays photon has more energy compared to a Visible light photon. The characteristics of electromagnetic waves are shown in diagram 1 and 2. Diagram 1: Properties of the EM spectrum across each range. Diagram 2: Electromagnetic spectrum. EMR is often associated with electromagnetic fields, which propagates themselves freely without the influence of moving charges responsible for producing them because they operate at a distance from the charges that produced them (Condon, & Ransom, 2003). This way, EMR is also referred to as far field. In this context, near field EMR refers to those electromagnetic fields near the current and charges, which directly produced them. The static electricity and magnets phenomena are the best examples of near field EM. In electromagnetic radiation, the electric and magnetic fields are often induced by the changes in electric fields. This makes it to propagate itself as a wave. Such as relationship ensures both the electric and magnetic types of the fields stand in a fixed ration of their intensity to each other and in phase with nodes and maxima found at similar places in space. Electromagnetic radiations carries energy called radiant energy through space and continuously away from its source. They also carries both angular momentum and momentum, all of which are impacted matter upon which EMR interact with. Electromagnetic waves are often produced from other forms of energy when they are created, and they are converted to other forms of energy whenever they get destroyed. The photon is the basic unit and constituent of all form of electromagnetic radiation, and is the quantum of the EMR interaction. In classical physics, electromagnetic radiation is considered produced whenever forces act on charged particles to accelerate them. Fast moving electrons are sharply accelerated whenever they meet any region of force. Electrons are therefore, responsible for the production of most high frequency EMRs such as X-rays. This is because of their associated low mass. Quantum process also produces EMR. This happens when an atomic nuclei is made to under a process such as neutral pion decay or gamma decay. The effects of electromagnetic radiations on biological systems depends on the radiation’s frequency and power. Health effects of Electromagnetic waves In the 21st century, exposure to manmade EMR fields has been increasing steadily with increasing growing energy demand. Changes in social behavior, as well as the ever-advancing technologies have created more artificial sources of EMR. We are exposed to mix of weak magnetic and electric fields both at work and at home from the domestic appliances, industrial equipment, generation and transmission of electrical energy, and in broadcasting and telecommunication. There exists tiny electrical currents within human bodies because of chemical reactions, which occur as part of bodily functions, even where external electric fields are
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