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Reading report - Essay Example

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Minds, Brains, and Programs Introduction The emergence of computers has been functionally and practical symbols of transformation and revolution of the world in terms of modernization. The emergence of robots was a controversial issue as many people thought that the reports would replace human beings in form of labor…
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Download file to see previous pages It is important to understand that human beings are responsible for building and assembling of computers. For this reason, it is important to distinguish between a strong artificial intelligence and a weak intelligence. One of such critics is John Searle who describes strong artificial intelligence with regard to the computer is that it is able to formulate and test hypothesis in a more rigorous and precise fashion with very minimal errors. However, Searle points out that the basis of the strength and precision of computer is not the brain but the programs, which have been installed in the computer. This means that computers have cognitive states, which are much stronger and accurate compared to that of a human being. A Turing test is the ability of the computer or a machine to give and express intelligent behavior, which is almost equivalent and is indistinguishable from human beings. Allan Turing who aimed at determining if computers can think developed this concept in 1950 (John R. Searle 54). In his test, he was not refereeing to the ability of the machines offering the right answers to the question but how the answers are closely linked to human response. The test therefore did not consider audio receptions but relied on text only channels. The test relies on artificial intelligence since it involves machines in testing if the computer is able to give accurate and precise answers. As expected Allan Turing test did not go without criticism. From a philosophical point of view Descartes agrees with the Turing test on the basis of automation but he was quick to denounce the test on the basis that it human beings can think and give answers and that machines can give the right answers and cannot think. It therefore means that even though machines can interpret information and give the right answers that do not qualify them to be superior to human on the basis of thinking. In addition to this, Searle disagrees with the Turing test on the subject that even though computers can respond to different languages and give the correct answers, they only provided the right answers but without understanding and this is what distinguishes artificial intelligence with human intelligence. A human being can only respond to a language if he/she has an understanding of the language. However, machines can do this better with the help of coded programs does not mean that the computer understands the language. To support his concept, Searle performed a Chinese room test where an English native speaker man is placed in room and shown Chinese symbols. The man fails to understand the Chinese symbol and language through writings since he is not a Chinese speaker. In the second test, the same man is given the same symbols but this time with interpreted English codes, which gives the meaning of the words and the man, begins to relate the English words with the Chinese symbols. Searle calls this the question and answer technique. If a Chinese native speaker is taken through the same test, similar results will be produced and it will be difficult to distinguish between answers from the English and Chinese speakers. We therefore conclude that the English native speaker has been able to answer Chinese questions even though he does not understand them. This does not make the human being intelligent since he has been able to answer questions that he does not understand. It is the coding of the English and C ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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