In the painting, Van Gogh makes use of actual lines for the swirling shape of the stars in the sky. The lines are horizontal thus acting as directional movement indicators. The lines act as the focal point of the painting). Most of the shapes in the painting are curving, swaying and undulating organic shapes that end in spirals and repeated circles in the sky. The only contrast to the organic shapes s that of the town which is geometric. Van Gogh’s painting provides both 2D and 3D space. The 2D space gets portrayed by the visual field which gets divided into three areas; the upper sky, the lower earth, town, mountains, and the third represented by the tall, flame like tree. Depth in the painting gets organized into several distinct planes; the town, the hills, the sky, and then the foreground cypress tree.
Van Gogh provides the aspect of time through the use of the bright stars and moon. This aspect makes it easy to depict the time as night. Through the use of lines, the artist provides horizontal motion in the painting. The landscape that is the hills and horizon appear to sway left to right. The sky also appears to move from left to right, ending in large spirals at the centre. Contrastingly, the cypress tree thrusts upwards dramatically. The artist employs the use of light to depict the nighttime in the painting. The powerful sky appears to sit above the quiet town. The main sources of light are the bright stars and the crescent moon. Van Gogh uses color to create harmony in the painting.