Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed the heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful…
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was aware of this and could not present any observational "proof" in his manuscript, relying instead on arguments about what would be a more complete and elegant system. From publication until about 1700, few astronomers were convinced by the Copernican system, though the book was relatively widely circulated (around 500 copies are known to still exist, which is a large number by the scientific standards of the time). Many astronomers, however, accepted some aspects of the theory at the expense of others, and his model did have a large influence on later scientists such as Galileo and Johannes Kepler, who adopted, championed and (especially in Kepler's case) sought to improve it. Galileo's observation of the phases of Venus produced the first observational evidence for Copernicus' theory.
The Copernican system can be summarized in seven propositions, as Copernicus himself collected them in a Compendium of De revolutionibus that was found and published in 1878:
1. Orbits and celestial spheres do not have a unique, common, center.
2. The center of the Earth is not the center of the Universe, but only the center of the Earth's mass and of the lunar orbit.
3. All the planets move along orbits whose center is the Sun, therefore the Sun is the center of the World. (Copernicus was never certain whether the Sun moved or not, claiming that the center of the World is "in the Sun, or near it.")
4. The distance between the Earth and the Sun, compared with the distance between the Earth and the fixed stars, is very small.
5. The daytime motion of the Sun is only apparent, and represents the effect of a rotation that the Earth makes every 24 hours around its axis, always parallel to itself.
6. The Earth (together with its Moon, and just like the other planets) moves around the...
Copernicus' major work, was the result of decades of labor. It opened with an originally anonymous preface by Andreas Osiander, a theologian friend of Copernicus, who urged that the theory did not necessarily have implications outside the limited realm of astronomy. Copernicus' actual book began with a letter from his (by then deceased) friend, the Archbishop of Capua, urging Copernicus to publish his theory. Then, in a lengthy introduction, Copernicus dedicated the book to Pope Paul III, explaining his ostensible motive in writing the book as relating to the inability of earlier astronomers to agree on an adequate theory of the planets, and noting that if his system increased the accuracy of astronomical predictions it would allow the Church to develop a more accurate calendar (calendar reform then being an important question and one of the major reasons for Church funding of astronomy.
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The Scientific Revolution: A Paradigm Shift from Miracles to Facts. It is easy to dismiss something which one makes no effort to understand. Throughout the middle ages, understanding was undoubtedly sought with reference to God, religion, and the natural world.
He can even make impossible steps just to bring changes around him. But still, he shows ability to adapt to these changes and survive making him a better person in the end. The Scientific Revolution changed the way people thought about the physical world around them while using scientific method as its basis (Watkins, par.1&2).
Theology procured its stature as the queen of all sciences. Likewise, society adhered to the authority and teachings of the Church. However, some time during the 14th century up until the 18th century, a revolutionary event took place in history and took its seat as humanity’s new path to knowledge and understanding.
Francis Bacon’s philosophy basically brought about an empirical approach during the 17th century. A convention of research and scientific experimentation was eventually introduced in to the system in the place of Aristotlean concept of natural and artificial circumstances.
Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper proposed a well-articulated philosophic view of scientific discovery and progress. In The Structures of the Scientific Revolution, Kuhn suggested that a scientific paradigm represented a coherent tradition that
Copernicus was the lastborn in the family of four. His life changed immensely when Copernicus Senior died while he was very young. His maternal uncle took over the responsibility of raising him. The entire family was highly religious. This is why Copernicus was
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The first theory developed was the Ptolemaic Universe. This describes a motionless earth surrounded by nine spherical containers of a sort. The seven closest ones were seen as different heavenly bodies which were observable to humans.
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