Underdeveloped countries are faced with a myriad of problems and shortcomings. Not only do they have to struggle with economic crisis but they face a number of ideological issues as well. Globalization is one of the ideological issues that is facing underdeveloped countries. The process of globalization affects different societies around the world in different ways. Those countries that have a wealth of resources will benefit more from globalization. They are able to manipulate and take advantage of activities such as investment and international trade. Underdeveloped countries have to grapple with this ideological issue as they have less to gain than the countries that are more developed. Globalization also affects the workforce of these countries. Skilled workers will move readily to places where there are better prospects for work. The advent of modern technology makes it easier for persons to seek for employment in different countries. Another ideological issue within underdeveloped countries is that of urbanization versus rural development. Political and social leaders have to find ways of balancing the population. As more persons move to the cities and towns a strain is placed on the infrastructure, economic and social fabric of the country. Privatization is another ideological factor within developing countries. While it is capable of bringing economic benefits some governments may use it to gain political mileage. 2. The political issues within underdeveloped countries are closed
linked with other issues such as economical, social, and cultural practices of these countries. Underdeveloped countries have a history of poverty, and a decay of the social fabric of the country. The major issue that faces politicians is to determine the type of political structure they should employ to move the countries forward. Another political issue of great importance is corruption among political leaders. Many underdeveloped countries experience unstable political conditions because the leaders fail to advance the welfare of the population. This lead to tension and anxiety among the general population and the political leaders alike. As a result many political leaders use excessive political force that they feel will help to control the people. Many of these countries have had to be dealing with military coups, riots and other types of political conflicts. In many cases they are subjected to excessive authoritarian rule. An unstable political climate leads to other issues that affect the growth and development of these countries. Whenever the democratic process is threatened there is little room for any political stability. The concept of democracy is a political issue within many underdeveloped countries. It means different things to different people and for many political structures there is much room for improvement. Most underdeveloped countries have been through periods of colonization. Interestingly in this post colonial era they are still unable to experience political stability and success. 3. The economic issues within underdeveloped countries are closely linked with other factors such as politics. It is the economic condition, however, that is a determining factor for the classification of these countries as underdeveloped. Poverty is a major economic issue in these countries. This is also closely linked to the social conditions of these countries. In many cases the crime rate is very high and this affects the social fabric of the country. Many of these countries have little or no natural resources. Their debts remain very high and governments are able to provide adequately for the people. The political and social conditions may not be conducive to investment and this can lead to a number of other economic problems. The economic issues within underdeveloped countries also affect education. If governments do not have sufficient funds to spend on education the poor will remain illiterate and the cycle of poverty will remain throughout many generations. Many of these countries have an agricultural economy. If they lack the technology that other countries have to help them with their production it is difficult for them to compete in the international market place. Mountjoy, A.B. (2009). Industrialization and Underdeveloped Countries. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.