Prevention of infection IVC University: Date: Introduction Bloodstream infections have a general mortality rate of between four and twenty percent. Actually, estimates have it that 500 - 4,000 US patients die of bloodstream infections annually. Nearly 90 of bloodstream infections occur with central line of administration…
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These intravascular catheters usually terminate at or near the heart, or in one of the great vessels including vena cava among others (Cdc.gov, 2010). This paper looks into prevention of infection in Inferior Vena Cava (IVC). Before inserting catheters, the inserter and their assistant(s) should observe strict proper hand hygiene by washing hands either with alcohol-based hand rub or with conventional antiseptic-containing soap. They should also take maximal barrier precautions – use mask, head cover, sterile gloves and sterile gown. They should also drape the patient with the full body drape and maintain a sterile environment during the insertion. The inserter should perform a back-and-forth friction scrub on the site skin using chlorhexidine skin preparation, and then ensure that the solution dries utterly before attempting central line insertion. The drying time varies with the site of insertion. If possible, use antimicrobial-impregnated catheters. After initial insertion, they should apply occlusive sterile dressing per policy. Unless in emergencies, they should not perform any fluids/medications administration through the line prior to verifying the catheter tip placement. Most importantly, one should never connect previously used administration sets and fluids to central venous access lines (WHO, 2005).
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The three sites that are utilized for central venous catheter insertion are internal jugular, subclavian and femoral.Although, like any other medical intervention,these catheters have their own share of complications,it is the risk of infection,which has the most serious clinical and economic repercussions for the patient,physician and health care facility
The statistics demonstrate the rapid penetration of STI transmission amongst adolescents. The transmission is believed to take place in adolescents who are above 25 years old more rapidly. The STI transmission surveys have been conducted on users of peculiar health services.
This issue may result to increased morbidity and mortality among patients. It may also prolong hospital stay which adds to the patient’s medical expenses (NSW Health, 2007: 3). Multi-resistant organisms (MRO) are bacteria that are resistant to a number of antimicrobial drugs such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant (VRE) (The Children’s Hospital at Westmead & Sydney Children’s Hospital.
In fact medical science in general and the nursing profession in particular have given much attention in recent years to this oft neglected area of clinical practice. This paper will discuss not only the nature and causes of infections, but also the efforts for infection prevention and control with special reference to defence healthcare.
This of course is due to the fact that a far smaller percentage of individuals receive home care; however, due to the fact that it represents a growing percentage of the means of health care delivery, the question itself has significance within the context of nursing and medicine.
The study has initially identified risk factors: both systemic and local, which increases preponderance for the development of foot ulcers. Specifically, seven variables were noted to be directly associated with the development of foot ulcers, to wit: neuropathy, callus, deformity, elevated peak pressure, vascular disease, ill-fitting footwear.
The author states that there are many attributions to infection or diseases, for example, different microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and prions. These microorganisms result in a wide variety of infections. Such infections include urinary tract, wounds, respiratory, blood, bone and skin infections.
This paper will discuss what can be done to prevent wound infection within the hospital setting.
There is no substitute for hand care. It has been known for many years that most infections are carried from one room to another on healthcare workers hands and yet it continues to happen.
However, the more imminent threat lies in the fact that these two organisms are becoming increasingly difficult to treat with available medication which has left hospitals with prevention as their main cure for reducing hospital acquired infections. Hospital acquired infections can result from a number of factors, however, MRSA and Clostridium difficile have been cited as the major causes in most cases and this has prompted the author to investigate the reasons behind the rise of MRSA and Clostridium difficile as the major causes of hospital acquired infections.
According to the study central venous catheters normally disrupt skin integrity thereby allowing pathogens to enter, and the infection may spread to the bloodstream (bacteremia) ensuing organ dysfunction and hemodynamic changes. This paper looks into prevention of infection in Inferior Vena Cava (IVC).
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