Student's Name & Course No.: Professor's Name: Critical Review Paper (HPV-DNA) 13 March 2011 Introduction This brief paper is a review of the study conducted by A. P. Mendizabal-Ruiz and five other colleagues (all of them from Mexico) regarding the probability of a relationship between the human papilloma virus (HPV) and some breast cancer cases…
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All the samples were taken from patients who have no prior history of breast cancers. This means those who had a family history of breast cancer were intentionally excluded from the group sampling in order to isolate the probable cause of the breast cancer to the presence of the HPV only. Out of the 107 samples taken from the pathology department, 67 of them are diagnosed to have breast cancer present while the remaining 40 samples were non-malignant. The purported rationale for this study was to investigate the possible connection that HPV has to certain types of breast cancers, since HPV is already well known to be a causative agent of most cervical uterine cancers. Since some breast cancers were found to have the HPV variants present in some of these cases, it was worth investigating if there is more to presence of the HPV's DNA in these breast cancer cases to link the two together. The HPV has several variants and types 16, 18 and 33 are quite common among certain populations. The authors of this study used the polymerase chain reaction method to try to detect the DNA of these HPVs. The aims of their study were to detect a presence of this DNA in breast cancer tissue samples and establish a possible role or link of this virus in the genesis of breast cancer.
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Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted modern lifestyle of living. It is found that modern ways of living and diet are one of the most important factors that increase the risk for breast cancer in countries with modern way of living.
Although there exists disparities among women from different ethnic, racial and cultural backgrounds, the developments in research of breast cancer offer a promising solution to all affected. It has been reported that in the year 2006 in U.S approximately 274,900 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed with 61,980 of these cases being in situ carcinomas and the rest (212,920) being malignant breast cancers.
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
Operable breast cancer is characterized by the presence of malignant cells within the milk ducts and other regions of the breast, which sometimes may include the local lymph nodes. The lumps or growths can be removed surgically provided that at the time of operation the patient does not have overt metastases.
Since contact with someone who already has the infection is what causes another to develop the human papillomavirus, the virus is considered to be a sexually transmitted disease. However, not all cases of human papillomavirus are contracted this way. Human papillomavirus, though consisting of over one hundred different varieties, can be narrowed down into two main groups: non-sexually transmitted and sexually transmitted.
Public health objectives can range from targeting fairly benign diseases such as the common cold, to life-threatening and devastating types of cancer. Health itself is defined by the World Health Organization as being a “state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1948, p1), suggesting that public health operatives need to look at the whole picture rather than merely preventing disease.
Physicians in those early days may not have known what the condition was, but they knew that something destructive was taking place. Unfortunately, breast cancer was considered a taboo, more of a punishment than an uncontrollable illness, which meant that very few diagnoses were made before the individual succumbed to the devastation of cancer.
ultimately minimize and prevent the occurrence of breast cancer, statistics and current trends still manifest the preponderance of women contracting breast cancer. The researchers’ personal experiences on having known close relatives and associates’ families with some
This topic is of significant interest to me since it concerns an infection that can lead to chronic illness, Cancer. The human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes genital warts as well as warts in the mouth.
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