Date Article Summary Moreno et al. authored the article entitled Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function in 2011. Researchers investigate on questions related to transfer from music and visual-art training to children’s performance on specific subjects of verbal and spatial intelligence and executive function, whether training programs would influence executive function, and whether there are links between training programs and changes in verbal or spatial intelligence mediated by changes in executive function (Moreno, et al., 2)…
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Researchers are working on those questions and hypotheses because there are only few studies that have demonstrated broad transfer from training to performance on untrained cognitive abilities, training paradigms lacked pedagogical foundation and was difficult to apply in non-laboratory setting or long-term behavioral change, link between music and language is unspecified, and lack of sufficient testing to support the evidences (Moreno, et al., 1-2). In testing the hypotheses, various techniques were used such as: using short, intense series of training sessions measuring intelligence with two subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence–Third Edition; measuring executive function using a go/no-go task that records behavioral performance and event-related potentials (ERPs); and review of previous studies showing increase in amplitude of P2 after music training (Moreno, et al., 2). Children aged 4-6 years old were test in the study. There are 71 children recruited but due to drop-out reasons, WPPSI-III data were available for 64 children, 32 (18 girls and 14 boys) who received visual-art training and 32 (20 girls and 12 boys) who received music training (Moreno, et al., 2). In addition, 16 participants were not included in the study because of uneasiness with the procedure and noise in the ERP signal. Therefore, the final sample size is 48 participants, with 24 participants in each training group. Moreno et al. found out that: there was no difference on visual-art training and music training on intelligence measures in the pretest session; significant improvement in intelligence scores marked by improvement only on verbal test were noted only on the music group after training; from pretest to posttest, more than 90% of the children in the music program improved their verbal score; music group outperformed the visual-art group at posttest; group performance has not been mainly affected but revealed significant effect of session only in the music group; N2/P3 complex groups have no significant differences but P2 component showed significant differences between groups; after training, the music group showed significantly larger peak amplitudes in the no-go trials whereas the visual-art group did not; and researchers found a significant positive correlation among music group only (4-5). Implications of the study are relevant to the education sector as evidence showed that WPPSI Verbal IQ is highly predictive of academic achievement plan and that there is a strong relationship between IQ evaluated at age 5 and in later life. In addition, computerized tutorials would make it easier for educational environments to implement training (Moreno, et al., 7). The study of Moreno et al. addressed neuroeducation and neurorehabilitation using computerized technologies. Context The findings of the study interest me because of the significant
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