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According to the recent statistics by the Center for Disease Control (CDC), tuberculosis is one of the world’s deadliest diseases. It is recoded that one third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis.
In the year 2013, it is recorded that 9 million people around the world became sick with tuberculosis disease. In the same year, there were around 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. For people living with HIV, T.B is the leading killer. A total of 9,582 TB cases (a rate of 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons) were reported in the United States in 2013. Both the number of TB cases reported and the case rate decreased; this represents a 3.6% and 4.3% decline, respectively, compared to 2012. The rate of infection for Tuberculosis is very high and it is reported that one infected person can infect 10 to 15 people each year.
Tuberculosis exists in three forms namely latent and active forms. People with latent TB infection do not feel sick and do not have any symptoms. They are thus said to be infected with M. tuberculosis, but do not have TB disease itself. The only indication of tuberculosis infection is a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test or TB blood test. Persons with latent TB infection are not infectious and cannot spread TB infection to others. The chest X-ray for a person with latent tuberculosis looks very normal and is treating by taking a medication that lasts 9 months. On the other hand, active tuberculosis is manifested by the reproduction and spread of tuberculosis germs in the body leading to tissue damage. A person usually feels sick and symptoms include cough that lasts 3 weeks, weight loss, night sweats, and fever. In this case, a chest x-ray and other tests are needed to diagnose TB disease.
According to the World Health Organization it is a proven fact that one-third of the world is infected with the Tuberculosis bacterium. Treatment of
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The focus of current paper is to establish the role of neutrophils in the formation of anti-tuberculosis immunity. The activation of circulating polimorphonuclears obtained from patients with active tuberculosis is associated with induced apoptosis. The paper also presents classification the complications of BCG vaccination according to the WHO that includes four categories.
In the worst clinical presentation, tuberculosis presents with serious necrotic to caseating granulomatous lesions in the lungs and other extra-pulmonary organs, such as the brain and liver. Granuloma formation is considered as a protective mechanism against a more serious spread of the bacteria to surrounding healthy tissues and organs.
Dr. Alan Altraja, also with a degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD) and PhD works at the same university. Dr. Alan Altraja now works as the Head of the Department for the Pulmonary Medicine. Both these authors of our current article have done extensive work and research in the field of pulmonary diseases.
Much of this population is in remote locations in Africa and South America. Current methodologies for the diagnosis of TB rely on labor intensive and delayed laboratory analysis of blood samples. A field kit is needed to diagnose patients in these remote locales that does not rely on extensive laboratory analysis and the utility of electrical power.
One such disease that has global implications is Tuberculosis, or TB (Raviglione, Snider, & Kochi, 1995). This paper purports to discuss the reason for the global nature of the disease by presenting epidemiological statistics, the nature and availability of the health care services in relation to this disease across the world, and an examination of the applicability of the human rights approach towards solving this global health problem.
Reports bared that there are already millions of people affected by COPD, though not transmissible but some of them are infected with this disease without medical knowledge on it and thus bereft with knowledge on how to go about with this disease for medication.
The research objective was to define the patterns and frequency of incidence. This would assist in Tuberculosis Policy forming and attempt at curbing the spread of the disease, bringing the country at par with standards established by other industrialized countries.
To control tuberculosis two important tools are the knowledge of epidemiology and good management. The control of tuberculosis has posed varied problems in the past decades. Consideration in commissioning and contracting
Based on this, microorganisms are grouped into pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic microorganisms are microorganisms, which have virulence factors in that they are capable of causing disease in their hosts with normal defense capacity. The
The occurrence of TB among close relations of infectious people can be around three times greater than in the public. A person who is with the HIV has a 5 percent to 10 percent risk of developing TB annually, and this percentage increases with more
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