cholerae. Its history repeats itself because of the contamination of foods and water that are consumed by people. In connection to this, the paper expounds on the symptoms and signs of cholera, its causes and how it is transmitted. It also…
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Severe dehydration as a result of this disease can lead to loss of life. Most people who suffer from this disease might have ingested the disease-causing organisms via food or water contaminated with V. cholerae. Although its symptoms are mild, healthy individuals develop profuse diarrhea within a day or a week after ingesting the disease-causing bacteria.
The symptoms and signs of cholera are depicted by a watery diarrhea that often contains traces of whitish material that are approximately the size of rice grains. As a result of this, the diarrhea is also referred to as “rice-water stool”. The diarrhea from a person suffering from this disease smells fishy. The volume of diarrhea produced by a victim of this disease can be enormous; the volumes may range from 10 to 18 liters in a span of 24 hours for an adult weighing 70 kg (“Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection”, 2013). Apart from watery diarrhea, persons suffering from this disease may also portray the following symptoms and signs: vomiting, rapid heart rate as well as loss of skin elasticity. It may also result to dry mucous membranes, low blood pressure and muscle cramps. The symptoms and signs of the disease may also include thirst feelings in addition to restlessness. Individuals that portray these symptoms are occasionally advised to seek immediate hydration in order to prevent the symptoms from advancing because they may result to severe cholera (Adler, 2013). Severe cholera often results to severe dehydration which may lead to acute renal failure, coma, as well as severe electrolyte imbalances. If untreated, severe dehydration results to shock and death. Severe dehydration is often experienced four to eight hours after the patient has passed the first liquid stool. It leads to death in 18 hours or few days if it remains untreated. The outbreak of this disease in underdeveloped countries can result to the mortality rate of about 50 to
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2). The groups that can produce the extreme symptoms of the production of cholera are O1 and O139. Both of these O groups are such choleraeserotypes that produce toxin. Cholera is also used as an umbrella term for several other diseases including chicken cholera or fowl because they cause diarrhea in birds.
In most developing countries, cholera infections are spread through the contaminated water resources, with the fecal-oral transmission mode being the most common transmission mode of the vibrio cholerae bacterium. The recent outbreak of cholera in Haiti in mid-October 2010 resulted in numerous deaths, with over 4000 recorded deaths being attributed to the outbreak, and over 200,000 new cases being reported.
In many instances, the outbreaks have severely strained both the local and national resources during periods when health care expenditure in the economically developed states has been restrained. Emerging illness is a phrase that has been utilized with augmenting occurrence to delineate the appearance of an unidentified contagion, or a beforehand identified contagion that expanded to a new ecological niche or a geographical area (Howard & Fletcher, 2012).
Whenever such movements of stomach acids likes the hydrochloric acid that help in the digestion of food leaks from the stomach back to the esophagus, the mucus lining of the wall prevent them from corroding the esophagus. Additionally, such backward movement of stomach and intestinal acids are rare since the digestion system has a mechanism of enclosing both the stomach and the intestines thus preventing such occurrences.
The cocci are rounded, bacilli are rod like in shape, and spirochete are spiral shaped. Some bacteria are pleomorphic, which means that they are variable in shape and can change their shape (Levinson 2008).Not all the bacteria are
The strongest of factual evidence provided, displaying this co-relational link, is through time-series analysis inclusive of data from varied events. In addition, is the presence of evidence, abate weakly supported, of rodent-borne and mosquito-borne illnesses increasing during such an event (Caviedes, 2001).
In 1844, John Snow completed his university Studies at the University of London and graduated. Royal College of Physicians recruited him later in 1850 (Simmons, 2002).
History reveals that John Snow was the eldest child in the
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