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The symptoms vary from one person to another depending with the underlying cause and they include; fatigue, edema, fluid accumulation, nausea, loss of appetite and weight, abdominal pain, etc. There are several other conditions that are associated with congestive heart failure (Jeffrey & Barry, 2007).
Congestive heart failure is diagnosed clinically based on the patients’ medical history. This is important because it could disclose the existence of some of the symptoms or even associated diseases. A physical examination on breath sounds, swelling of the legs or neck is done to determine the presence of excessive body fluid, pulse rate and heart size are also recommended physical exams (Sosin, Bhatia, Lip, & Davies, 2006). Diagnostic tests such as areechocardiogramam (used to show the heart image), and chest X-rays electrocardiogram aare done so as to detect any previous attacks, arrhythmia to show fluid accumulation and heart enlargement (Plantz & Adler, 2002). This condition can be treated through the use of analgesics, inotropic, nitrates, and diuretics. These medications are used to alleviate the symptoms associated with the disease. The ultimate treatment could be a heart transplant which is very risky or a surgery depending on the underlying cause. (Yancy & Firth, 1988)
This is a viral or bacterial airway infection that affects the lungs. Its main symptoms include a hefty cough that comes with, difficulty in breathing, pain in the chest, and thick mucus. Mr. B has all these symptoms and his chest has to be monitored because it could lead to a heart attack. The shortness of breath is brought about by fluid accumulation in the lungs and its surroundings. Chest infections can be life threatening or mild, it is worse when one has a congestive heart failure disease (Choi, Ryter, & Levine, 2013).
Mr. B is suffering from sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (snore) as indicated by the breath sounds. It is a disorder mostly associated with
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Aggarwal and colleagues (2001, p. 2) have pointed out that disorders of fluid and electrolyte are prevalent among neonates, and understanding the physiological changes in the neonate’s body water and solute after birth is crucial in securing an efficient shift from the aquatic in-utero environment.
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