Concept map - Assignment Example

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Concept Map Case Study- Cardiovascular System Name: Institution: Course name: Lecturer: Date due: Diagnosis From the given symptoms, this is a case of congestive heart failure in the patient secondary to a valvular dysfunction. The valvular dysfunction is brought about by the recurrent rheumatic fever the patient had in her twenties (Nixon, & American Heart Association, 2011)…
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Concept Map Case Study- Cardiovascular System Lecturer: due: Diagnosis From the given symptoms, this is a caseof congestive heart failure in the patient secondary to a valvular dysfunction. The valvular dysfunction is brought about by the recurrent rheumatic fever the patient had in her twenties (Nixon, & American Heart Association, 2011). The rheumatic fever recurrence might have damaged or defected one of the four heart valves. The patient is asymptomatic; this is because the diagnosis was made after the physical examination. According to the case study, the physical examination revealed a crescendo-decrescendo murmur with the sound perceived best at the left upper sterna border. This spread out to the both carotid arteries, leading to ventricular dysfunction. According to the case study, the patient is experiencing a low- pitched murmur due to the congestive heart failure. The patient had an extra S3 heart sound. This is due to murmur heard after the initial heart beat that ends ahead of the subsequent heart sound (Kouchoukos, 2012). Stress placed upon the patient’s heart The term which accurately describes the stress placed upon the patient’s heart is increased after load. This term refers to the increased cardiac output. The dysfunctional valve is unable to close fully thus permitting blood to seep back to the chamber it was recently. Continual seepage action may bring about a clot in the heart resulting to cases of stoke or pulmonary embolism. There is an increase of forward flow across the valve, and a decrease of the aortic valve area. The cardiac output determines the discharge coefficients of the valve area. Pressure gradient is applied across the heart valves. The left ventricle is put into a lot of pressure as more vigor is needed to emit the blood via the tight valve. There is resistance to the blood flow; leading to stress upon the left ventricular. Valvular dysfunction leads to no reimbursement with elevated end diastolic pressure (Rajamannan, 2013). Valve dysfunction leads to the production of pressure overload caused by confined opening or volume overload by improper closing. Because of augmented pressure in the pulmonary system, congestive heart failure will be the resultant (Porth, & Porth, 2011). How the body might compensate for the heart stress Because of the stress imposed on the heart, by the dysfunctional ventricular; the body comes up with ways on how to compensate this chaos. The initial compensation is the thickening of walls of the left ventricle. This is done to make up for the poor pumping action of the heart. Compensation of cardiac enlargement is seen in patients suffering from heart failure caused by valve dysfunction. Because of the narrowing action of the affected valve, there is evidence of calcification. Severe cases of valve dysfunction lead to congestive heart failure and other heart related complications. Enlargement of the heart and thickening of the valves leads to the loss of performance and elasticity. Advanced cases of congestive heart failure lead to enlarged right atrium and right ventricle depressing the systolic function (Rajamannan, 2013). Does the cardiac silhouette rule out possible problem with the patient’s heart? In chest radiography, cardiac size is normal in all patients who have valvular dysfunction. This is evident from the rounding of the left ventricular border and apex caused by hypertrophy (Henein et al, 2012). A chest x-ray showing normal results of a cardiac silhouette does not rule out a possible problem with the patient’s heart. Further examination procedures have to be carried out so that the condition of the patient can be determined. Although the chest x-ray shows normal results, the medical practitioner must still examine the heart based on the following questions. Why is an extra “S3” sound heard? Why is there a low- pitched rumbling systolic murmur? This means that there is a problem with the heart of the patient, and other tests must be done. A chest x-ray can not rule out any possible problem with the heart. Dysfunctional valves result to the commencement of other diseases. For instance, the dysfunctional valves are prone to infective endocarditic diseases. Appropriate investigations that can determine any problem with the heart of the patient include; ECG, CXR, MSCT, cardiac magnetic resonance, among many more (Otto, 2012). Pathophysiological concept in relation to the case study Valvular heart dysfunction builds up from progressive narrowing and hardening of the heart valves. The valves mostly affected by these diseases are the aortic and mitral valves. Narrowing of the valves leads to inadequate pumping of blood which results to pressure increase on the left ventricle. This affects the contraction and expansion functions. The left ventricle acclimatizes to the impediment by thickening its walls and upholding normal left ventricular chamber dimension. Hypertrophy is a mechanism to compensate for the stress exerted to the heart. Left ventricular systolic function and cardiac output are maintained in spite of the pressure gradient transversely experienced by the aortic valve. This mechanism cannot be permanently maintained, systolic function declines due to pressure overload. The left ventricle worsens and the diastolic pressure increase despite the fact that the ventricular size will be regular. There will be increased wall thickness resulting to decreased coronary artery blood flow and reserve. Symptoms develop at this point (McCance, & Huether, 2009). Concept map in relation to the case study Pressure increase on the left ventricle Condition progresses (pressure overload) Decreased coronary artery task- blood flow & reserve Advanced Congested Heart failure (CHF) References Henein, M. Y., Sheppard, M. N., Pepper, J., & Rigby, M. L. (2012). Clinical echocardiography. London: Springer. Kouchoukos, N. T. (2012). Kirklin/Barratt-Boyes cardiac surgery. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders. McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2009). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children. S.l.: Mosby Inc. Nixon, J. V., & American Heart Association. (2011). The AHA clinical cardiac consult. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Otto, C. M. (2012). The practice of clinical echocardiography. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. Porth, C., & Porth, C. (2011). Essentials of pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health states. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Rajamannan, N. M. (2013). Cardiac valvular medicine. London: Springer Read More
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